【ethereum mining data usage】

Retail-trading platform Robinhood is reportedly testing aethereum mining data usage long-awaited digital wallet feature that enables users to send and receive crypto-assets such as Bitcoin (BTC).

The SHA-256 algorithm takes inputs from users and encrypts them to produce a unique oulitecoin foundation newstput that is difficult to predict. Solana takes the output of a transaction and uses it as the input for the next hash. The order of the transactions is now inbuilt into the incoming hashed output. This is different from how the Bitcoin blockchain operates.The Solana PoH hashing process creates a long, unbroken chain of hashed transactions. This is designed to create a clear and verifiable order of transactions so that when a validator adds to a block, they don’t need to use a conventional timestamp.

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Blocks on the Bitcoin blockchain are large and unorganized. Each BTC miner adds the time and date to the block they mine based on their local time. Other nodes in the network then have to verify that the timestamp provided by the miner is valid because it may be false or differ from the time reported by other miners. This is time-consuming.By ordering transactions into a chain of hashes, however, Solana validators are able to process and transmit less information per block. Having that hashed version of the latest state of transactions constantly recorded greatly reduces the time to confirm each block on the Solana chain. Transactions on Solana are verifiably ordered without all nodes needing to agree simultaneously. This is a key reason why it is so quick.Proof-of-History combines with other features of Solana to optimize and speed up throughput. For example, TowerBFT is Solana’s version of a Byzantine fault-tolerant Proof-of-Stake consensus model that uses the cryptographic clock enabled by PoH to speed up blockchain consensus by reducing messaging overhead and transaction latency. Selecting the next Proof-of-Stake node to validate a block of transactions becomes faster because nodes need less time to verify the order of transactions.In a blog post from July 2019, Anatoly Yakovenko describes eight key innovations that make Solana “the First Web-Scale Blockchain”. Aside from Proof-of-History and Tower BFT (more on those later), the six other key innovations are:Turbine — a block propagation protocol

Gulf Stream — a mempool-less transaction forwarding protocolSealevel — parallel smart contracts run-timeThe final layer is the application layer. This layer maintains the public APIs that enable Dapp developers on Fantom to interact with their Dapps.

Fantom has noted that there are some advantages to building on Fantom directly as opposed to porting Dapps from Ethereum onto Fantom. One of these is the ‘story data’ feature of the protocol layer that allows for the tracking of past transactions on the network.The project’s backersIn May 2019, Fantom announced that it would be partnering with the Binance Smart Chain to improve its interoperability by launching a multi-asset, cross chain interoperability project. The multi asset initiative was meant to bring in new token standards, which would include Fantom versions of Ethereum’s ERC20 standard and the Binance Smart Chain’s BEP20. Interoperability has always been a key focus of the project and this continued with the launch of Opera and Ethereum style apps.Fantom has big name VC backers like Sam Bankman-Fried’s Alameda Research, Arrington XRP Capital and BlockTower Capital. Its advisors include Andre Cronje, one of DeFi’s most notable developers. He has played a key role in building Ethereum-esque DeFi solutions for Fantom.

The TokenThe FTM token is the native token of the Fantom network. It secures the network, and it is the primary network token used for payments and to assign governance rights.

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Fantom is a proof-of-stake network where validators are assigned work on the blockchain, and the ability to earn rewards, in proportion to their holdings of the network digital asset. Fantom validator nodes must hold a min of 3,175,000 FTM to participate while stakers are to assign their tokens to a staking pool that earns rewards on their behalf. The minimum for a staker is 1 FTM. Nodes and stakers are assigned rewards regularly for their services to the network.A secondary utility of the tokens is payments enabled by Fantom’s fast speeds. Finally, FTM is used as the gas to power any smart contract interaction on the network.The Fantom staking mechanismAs mentioned, Fantom is a proof-of-stake blockchain where users can either run their own validator nodes or assign their stake to a validator which will earn rewards on their behalf. This means that anyone who holds FTM tokens can choose to delegate some of their SOL to one or more validators, who process transactions and run the network.

There is no minimum staking period for FTM. Additionally, Liquid Staking unlocks the value of FTM once it is staked. sFTM is minted in a 1:1 ratio to staked FTM and can be used as collateral in Fantom Finance, the platform’s DeFi suite.StakingRewards.com lists Fantom as the 17th-largest blockchain by value of assets staked - with US$2,386,542,598 staked. There are just ~64% of token holders participating in Fantom, which implies 36% of token holders are passively holding their FTM and are likely just speculators.Fantom is an emerging proof-of-stake still in its early adoption phase. This means rewards for stakers are still relatively high.The current estimated interest rate for FTM holders who delegate their tokens to a validator is 9.6%. Adjusted for the inflation rate of network supply, however, this interest rate drops to 2.4%. According to Staking Rewards, validators running a Fantom Node will earn an interest rate of 11.34% but once adjusted for network supply inflation this drops to 4.1%.

Users can delegate their tokens to a staking pool that will, for a fee, participate in the network’s Proof-of-Stake consensus on behalf of the delegator. Or they can run a node themselves and directly participate in consensus. Staking rewards.com describes the complexity of delegating FTM to a staking pool as ‘easy’. The FTM wallet is a web application built for Fantom that allows users to allocate to a pool within minutes. Increasing stake and unstaking is simple and can be completed within the same wallet.It describes the complexity of running your own Fantom validator node as ‘Very Hard’ and risky for staking rewards. There are very high hardware requirements (with AWS setups recommended, which also requires a high level of technical knowledge).

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There are currently 43 live validators on the Fantom network, a relatively small quorum that implies relative centralization.Conclusion

Fantom is pitched as a cheaper, faster, more energy efficient version of Ethereum. It can be viewed as a direct substitute for Ethereum using the same wallets, virtual machines and developer tools. It has stood against other EVM chains because of its unique consensus model, a long term focus on interoperability and perhaps because it is the next asset in line as part of the ongoing platform blockchain price pumps.The network has big-name VC backers and it continues to attract developers to build on it. It does, however, appear to be relatively centralized compared to chains like Ethhereum and Solana. Additionally like other EVMs it is riding on the coattails of Ethereum and may be hung out to dry when Ethereum becomes more scalable following the implementation of sharding and the full transition to Ethereum 2.0.The mission of the Cirus foundation is to accelerate the ownership economy by building the on-ramp for individuals to own, manage and monetize their largest digital commodity — data.The internet has penetrated nearly every aspect of people's lives, including communicating with one another, consuming entertainment, and acquiring knowledge.The current Web 2.0 environment has come to reflect the era of "Big Data," in which individuals enrich themselves by providing data to centralized digital platforms.The Cirus platform aims to transform this business method by addressing three major paradigm shifts: digital accessibility, big data and the key to ownership, and, last but not least, Web 3.0.

What does Cirus aim for?To gain a better understanding, Cirus Foundation is a multi-layered ecosystem that uses cutting-edge technology, software, and a tokenized currency to accelerate the ownership economy.

Individuals may enter this new era by owning, managing, and monetizing their most valuable digital asset - data. Cirus is more than a game-changing solution for the next step in crypto and data storage.The Cirus Foundation is a non-profit contributor to the Cirus Ecosystem, which contains the Cirus Device, Cirus Core Platform, and Cirus Confluence. They all work together to create a strong system that achieves three fundamental paradigm shifts in the way individuals interact with, profit from, and contribute to the ownership economy.

Who is behind the project?Cirus stands up with a fantastic team; although they are at the start of their journey, it seems that creative ideas have attracted many interested participants to their project.

One such person is former Apple CEO Gil Amelio, who has joined the Cirus Foundation as a senior adviser. The senior technology executive will also serve as chairman of Cirus' commercial business, assisting Cirus in reaching a new market for its technologies.Another notable adviser is Finis Conner who is the co-founder of two Fortune 500 tech companies—Seagate and Conner Peripherals. Cirus will benefit from Conner's knowledge of growing hardware production, given his background with digital storage systems. Conner will also be essential to Cirus as it moves away from centralized storage and develops better solutions that ensure users' data ownership, which Conner refers to as personal cloud data storage.What’s the next step?Cirus will also offer a device that can replace a regular home internet router while allowing interaction with the Cirus Core Platform and Confluence Network.

Starting with the typical plug-and-play method, the user easily connects to the internet by replacing their traditional router with the Cirus. Users will be able to set permissions and pass thresholds for data collection through the device.The information gathered is rich and granular, and the Cirus Core platform uses it. The gadget does not need a significant change in the user's behavior. They currently have 47 international patents pending, allowing them to offer an increasing and robust set of features that go beyond that of a primary internet router.

Aside from that, the Cirus Foundation will have its token, which will serve as the network's native currency and external platform interactions. Their token has a fixed supply of 250 million units. The coin ecosystem will be split into four sections, including:Authentification

RemittanceBridge & Transactions

Network ValidationFurthermore, the Cirus Foundation addresses the complicated issues surrounding the commoditization of digital asset transfer and trading in today's society.Prepare for the most significant shift in the crypto market!Editorial Note: This is a sponsored article. Opinions expressed are solely those of the sponsor and readers should conduct their own due diligence before taking any action based on information presented in this article.

UPDATED September 15th 2021. Who offers the best crypto interest rates? With the growth of DeFi & CeFi applications, crypto lending, margin exchanges, and stakable cryptocurrencies over the last few years, it can be difficult to know where the best yields for your idle capital are. Following on from our guide to crypto yield farming, this survey looks into the major crypto lending platforms and examines the different interest rates offered by them.First, an understanding of the difference between ‘crypto lending’ and ‘crypto borrowing’ in the context of this article is important. If you are lending in the scenarios below you are loaning your assets to the platforms featured with the expectation that you will earn interest on your crypto assets. Your goal is the return of your original sum, with earned interest. This article does not explore crypto borrowing - where you would borrow assets (or fiat in some cases) from a platform, which you would be required to repay - with additional interest.

The question of which is the best crypto lending platform is open to debate - as each has its own approach and processes - but certainly annual interest rates paid are a good place to start. All interest rates were recorded on the 1st of March 2021 and are subject to change.1. DeFi Lending

Demand for borrowing in the DeFi world comes as a result of either margin trading on decentralized exchanges or from borrowing on DeFi applications. The constant fluctuation of demand and supply on DeFi applications results in yields that are fairly volatile. Due to the majority of DeFi applications being on the Ethereum network, borrowing and lending consists mainly of Ethereum, ERC-20 tokens, and wrapped Bitcoin, which is an ERC-20 token that is backed 1:1 with Bitcoin. The business model of the platforms can differ slightly.2. Centralized Lending

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Perspectives of a 2x entrepreneur turned VC at @UpfrontVC#

Mark Suster

Written by

2x entrepreneur. Sold both companies (last to salesforce.com). Turned VC looking to invest in passionate entrepreneurs 〞 I*m on Twitter at @msuster

Both Sides of the Table

Perspectives of a 2x entrepreneur turned VC at @UpfrontVC, the largest and most active early-stage fund in Southern California. Snapchat: msuster

Mark Suster

Written by

2x entrepreneur. Sold both companies (last to salesforce.com). Turned VC looking to invest in passionate entrepreneurs 〞 I*m on Twitter at @msuster

Both Sides of the Table

Perspectives of a 2x entrepreneur turned VC at @UpfrontVC, the largest and most active early-stage fund in Southern California. Snapchat: msuster