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For non-blockchain enthusiasts, meta universe is still an obscure concept. This may change soon. The New York Times is running the meta-universe iragno tronbettanterpreter; traditional brands such as Sotheby’s and Coca-Cola are entering the meta-universe; perhaps most importantly, Zuckerberg is linking the future of Facebook with the meta-universe. He told employees in the summer, The company's primary goal is to "bring the virtual world to life."

For example: Euler provides a stable pool for the USDT that lends assets. The lender who is willing to participate in the stable pool can deethereum classic weekly forecastposit their own USDT deposit certificate eUSDT into the stable pool as the counterparty of the liquidator, so that the liquidator is auctioning After obtaining the mortgaged assets, the mortgaged assets are exchanged to the deposit users of the stable pool at a discounted price (after deducting their own income), which is equivalent to that the users of the stable pool purchase the collateral at a discounted price.Compared with Liquity which only supports the LUSD stable pool, Euler's multi-token stable pool contains specific types of tokens that have not been disclosed, but it is believed that it will still be based on stable currencies or mainstream currencies.

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The advantage of adopting this mechanism is that the agreement believes that when the borrower reaches the liquidation threshold, the liquidator can use the internal liquidity source to immediately liquidate, without the need to exchange assets from a third-party trading platform, which greatly eases the liquidator When the market fluctuates sharply, the internal clearing price is inconsistent with the external platform price, and the high transaction slippage causes the liquidator to lose or fail.In addition, Euler does not intend to use an external oracle, but uses the time-weighted average price (TWAP) of assets on Uni V3 and WETH to measure the ratio of assets to liabilities.In the information that Euler has released, it has not disclosed the total amount of its governance token Euler, the distribution method, and the unlocking time. But it has made a preliminary outline of the functions and scenarios of its tokens. Euler will follow Compound's governance paradigm, and its governance functions include the ability to determine the level of assets, important parameters of the agreement, and the framework of governance itself. In addition, Euler also has a Vault mechanism, which can ensure the security of the agreement through staking.Since the product has not yet been launched, the risk parameters of project assets and other information have not yet been disclosed. In terms of contracts, Euler has officially disclosed three contract security partners, including Certora, Halborn, Solidified, and ZK Labs (the two collaborated to issue reports), and they have obtained two contract audit reports. Since Euler has introduced more innovative mechanisms, the amount of native code is also large. The issue of contract security is the top priority, and the team still attaches great importance to it.Euler is committed to becoming a Uniswap in the lending field, providing lending liquidity and composability for more long-tail assets, and has a strong investor background. The agreement has introduced many innovative mechanisms to address the shortcomings of the current lending agreement, but since the agreement has not yet been launched, the practical effects of these innovations remain to be seen. There is still no clear timetable for the launch of the project, but the administrator of the Chinese community Chris (Mr. the well-known encrypted KOL block) said that more news may be disclosed in September.

Product launch time: August 17, 2021Beta Finance is a decentralized permissionless lending platform incubated by Alpha Finance. Its feature is that users can spontaneously establish currency asset pools, focus on the long-tail asset market, and focus on scenarios where assets are short-selling.We prefer a concentrated Darth Vader to a scattered labyrinth. Time will tell whether our choices in the meta-universe are different.

Coin Circle News reported that Charles Gasparino, a member of the Fox Business panel, revealed in a tweet yesterday that Ripple's legal team stated that they did not consider reaching a settlement with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC). They must decisively prove that SEC Chairman Gary Gensler pursued the case in order to select winners and losers in the encryption business, which is not conducive to innovation.As of press time, according to Huobi global data:BTC recently traded at US$48,127.41, with an intraday increase or decrease of -0.57%;ETH recently traded at US$3419.46, a daily increase or decrease of -1.53%;

BCH recently traded at US$627.11, with an intraday increase or decrease of -0.46%;BSV recently traded at US$156.52, with an intraday increase or decrease of -1.34%;

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EOS recently traded at US$5.45, an intraday increase or decrease of +2.12%;LTC recently traded at US$180.9, with an intraday increase or decrease of -0.58%;LINK recently traded at US$28.33, an intraday increase or decrease of -1.26%;DOT recently traded at US$20.44, an intraday increase or decrease of -1.82%.

On September 18th, South Korea’s Minister of Strategy and Finance Hong Namki stated at the National Assembly meeting on September 15 that the planned cryptocurrency taxation law will take effect early next year. The ruling Democratic Party and the opposition party have agreed to take legislative action against crypto. Currency taxation, there is no reason to delay the implementation of the law. Earlier news, South Korean parliament representatives proposed in 2020 to impose a 20% capital gains tax and a 2% local income tax on cryptocurrency transactions with an annual income of more than 2.5 million won (approximately US$2,100). The law was originally scheduled to take effect in October 2021, but has since been revised and its implementation has been postponed until January 1, 2022.On September 18, the government is paying close attention to the cryptocurrency circulating in foreign markets, because the agency responsible for checking financial fraud is paying attention to a company called Hyper Fund. According to sources, Hyper Fund, a subsidiary of Hyper Tech Group, has recently received attention. Hyper Tech Group said that the establishment of Hyper Fund is to provide a decentralized financial infrastructure. Hyper Fund was announced in mid-2020. According to the company’s website, it is led by Ryan Xu, but Hyper Fund with a multi-level marketing (MLM) model has been attracting investors with higher returns, and such issuance is a common practice under the Ponzi scheme, which first aroused the authorities Attention. According to sources, complaints against such funds have begun to emerge in multiple states.Biquan News reported that on September 18, the Governor of the People’s Bank of China, Yi Gang, said in the opening speech of the Sino-German "Fintech and Global Payments Panorama-Exploring Xinjiang Region" video conference, saying that in recent years, financial technology has been growing rapidly in China. develop. Technologies such as artificial intelligence, big data, cloud storage, and blockchain continue to promote the digital transformation of financial institutions. The application of products and tools is becoming more abundant, and the efficiency and inclusiveness of financial services have been greatly improved. The development of financial technology has also effectively contributed to the rural revitalization strategy. The use of satellite remote sensing, electronic fence, blockchain and other technologies can dynamically monitor the production and operation of agricultural products such as agriculture, forestry, animal husbandry and fishery, promote the in-depth integration of capital flow, logistics, and business flow, improve the availability of financing for the agricultural industry and upstream and downstream enterprises, and help the agricultural industry modernization. In response to the lack of farmers’ “digital footprint” and other issues, digital means can also be used to improve the rural credit information system, which will help expand credit coverage.At present, Tencent continues to promote the establishment of technical standards for landmark agricultural products brand traceability, brand marketing and protection, brand image design and other sections, and makes full use of big data, Internet of Things, blockchain and other technologies to fully assist landmark agricultural products brands in areas with weak digitalization across the country. Accelerate growth.

On September 15, the Maritime-Shutu Lingang Blockchain Technology Research Institute, co-built by Shanghai Maritime University and Shanghai Conflux Blockchain Research Institute, was established. It is reported that after the institute has landed in Lingang, it plans to carry out research and application in the following four aspects: Relying on the openness of Lingang and the tree map public chain, the exploration and application of "the construction of offshore RMB international payment channels based on the tree map public chain" will be carried out. Practice; combined with its own exploration and technological advantages, lead or participate in the construction of the port trade and financial blockchain standard system; create shipping blockchain technical standards and shape a new shipping ecology; develop a technological ecology and fully empower the industry.Coin Circle News reported that Glassnode data shows that the Realized Price of BTC has just reached a record high of US$21,025.87. It is reported that the "realized price" refers to the "realized market value" of the token divided by the current supply, and the "realized market value" is the market value calculated by adding up the market price of the token when it moves on the chain for the last time.

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According to the latest industry research by the evaluation website CryptoHead, due to the surge of cryptocurrency ATMs and the growing interest of the state's population in digital assets, California has become the "most cryptocurrency-ready" jurisdiction in the United States. In the encryption readiness index, California beat New Jersey (5.44 points), Texas (5.28 points), Florida (5.03 points) and New York (4.29 points) with 5.72 points (out of 10 points). The state's total score is also 2.54 points higher than the national average.Cryptocurrency trader and YouTube influencer Lark Davis stated that Ethereum is expected to rise by 190% to reach a five-figure price. Davis told its YouTube subscribers that based on key fundamental factors, the second-largest crypto asset by market value is preparing to appreciate above $10,000. He believes that one of the reasons why the price of Ethereum will more than double is due to the decline in its exchange supply. According to Davis, the supply on exchanges has shown a strong downward trend over the past year, as holders have either locked their ETH in a decentralized finance (DeFi) protocol or used their ETH to buy NFTs. With the normal operation of the supply mechanism, it is only a matter of time before the ethereum supply crisis eventually pushes up prices severely.

Coin Circle News reported that Charles Gasparino, a member of the Fox Business panel, shared information received from sources close to Ripple Labs executives. Allegedly, the US Securities and Exchange Commission's XRP case harmed Ripple's domestic business in the United States, but its business is still booming overseas, further proof that the SEC's encryption enforcement agenda is forcing innovation to occur outside the United States.Statistics from CoinATMRadar show that up to now, the number of Bitcoin ATMs deployed globally has reached 27,670. Distributed in 73 countries or regions, including 24,290 units in the United States, 1904 units in Canada, and 205 units in El Salvador. Each of the remaining countries or regions is less than 200.Coincircle.com reported that the four largest listed Bitcoin miners in North America, Marathon Digital Holdings, HUT 8 Mining, Riot Blockchain, Inc, and HIVE Blockchain Technologies, have an average year-to-date return rate of 140%, while the return rate of Bitcoin is 49%. For those looking for indirect bitcoin exposure or value investment opportunities in the open market, holding equity in North American bitcoin miners is an option.Although Ethereum L2 provides many benefits, such as low gas fees, almost instant transaction confirmation, and inheriting the security of Ethereum L1, there has not been a good catalyst to promote the adoption of L2 until the first on Arbitrum The launch of ArbiNYAN, a major revenue farm, has pushed the TVL (total value of locked positions) of Arbitrum, an L2 network, from USD 238 million to over USD 2.5 billion in less than 5 days.Although it is still in the early stages, it has fully proved the huge demand for Ethereum L2. Of course, this also raises a question: how can investors gain exposure to this trend? Let's explore some of these methods.Nothing in this article constitutes investment or financial advice. Please do your own research before making any decision.

Investors do not have to bet directly on the success of a single application or L2 network. Instead, investors can configure the L2 infrastructure layer in their portfolio and choose those tools that power L2 to gain exposure.This strategy may be suitable for investors who want to avoid choosing who will be the winner in the L2 ecosystem, but still want to gain exposure to assets that will benefit from L2 growth. In addition, due to the network effects of these infrastructures and the huge barriers to entry faced by other competitive services, many infrastructure agreements are in a monopoly position and the competition they face is limited.

The DeFi protocol requires safe and trust-minimized oracle price feeds to realize contract pricing and timely liquidation activities. For example, almost all major DeFi protocols deployed on the Optimistic L2 network, including Synthetix, Aave, Curve, SushiSwap, Dopex, and other protocols, have integrated Chainlink (LINK) oracles into their feed prices to achieve timely settlement And other activities.The protocol not only needs to access data off-chain, but also data on-chain.

The Decentralized Data Index Protocol The Graph is another key component in the infrastructure stack. It provides an index of data on the chain, allowing applications to query data on the chain in a decentralized and trustless manner. The protocol supports a variety of different networks, including Ethereum L2 networks such as Arbitrum and Optimism, and is used by some Dapps applications that have been deployed in L2, such as Uniswap, Synthetix, and Futureswap.Similar to Chainlink, The Graph can provide exposure to a wide range of L2 networks and excellent Dapps without betting on specific L2 networks or applications.

Although compared with L1, the fast transaction confirmation of L2s and the reduction of gas fees significantly improve the user experience, but L2s still faces a series of unique challenges: Among them, it is worth noting that the withdrawal of funds from Optimistic Rollups to the main network requires a wait7 Days; it is also difficult to migrate liquidity between different L2s.Two projects, Hop Protocol and Connext, aim to solve this problem. These two projects allow users to seamlessly transfer assets between different networks compatible with EVM (Ethereum Virtual Machine), and allow users to withdraw funds "fast", allowing users to avoid withdrawal waiting periods.Although these two projects have not yet issued tokens, these systems are worth experimenting because they may provide retroactive airdrops for early users!The second way for investors to gain L2 exposure is by investing in popular apps. Any blockchain or L2s will only provide the best possible experience for the applications built on it-if there is no worthwhile application on a certain network, then no one will use the network.

Because of this, applications running on one or more L2s can provide investors with varying degrees of risk exposure. Importantly, L2s represents an emerging market, and the existing Dapps protocol can increase its user base on L2s, thereby increasing its usage and revenue.There are two main types of applications that can provide investors with L2 exposure: “early adopters” who migrate from L1 to L2 and “L2 native applications”. There has been a substantial increase in applications.

In comparison, the “early adopters” of L2 may prove to be “safer” because these applications are not entirely dependent on the success of the underlying L2, and “L2 native applications” may represent a greater impact on a particular L2 network. Concentrated bets.Although the applications listed below are not comprehensive (there are many opportunities not included), let's take a look at the following examples.

Uniswap is the largest DEX (decentralized exchange) on Ethereum L1, and it is also the earliest adopter of Optimism L2 network. Uniswap was deployed on the Optimism network in July 2021. At the time of writing, the agreement has more than 32 million U.S. dollars of liquidity on the Optimism network, and has achieved a daily transaction volume of more than 10 million U.S. dollars in recent days.In addition to Optimism, Uniswap has also recently been deployed on the Arbitrum network. This deployment has enabled Uniswap to gain greater usage. In the past 4 days, the agreement has locked a total of 37 million U.S. dollars in value on the Arbitrum network, and generated more than 20 million U.S. dollars in transaction volume every day.

SushiSwap is another important decentralized exchange and an early adopter of L2. SushiSwap has already occupied a considerable market share on the Polygon L2 network and is also deployed on other blockchains such as Fantom, Avalanche and Harmony. In addition, SushiSwap is also one of the first protocols deployed on Arbitrum.Since September 10th, the deployment of the SushiSwap agreement on Arbitrum has achieved great success. At the time of writing, its liquidity exceeded US$27 million, and its daily transaction volume exceeded US$24 million. In addition, Sushiswap's performance sometimes even outperforms its main competitor Uniswap, with transaction volume exceeding $125 million on certain days. See below:Although the SushiSwap team stated that given their multi-chain strategy, they may postpone deployment to the Optimism network, but it seems likely that they will eventually deploy to the network.Curve is another decentralized exchange that quickly embraced L2. Curve has almost monopolized the exchange of similar assets on the Polygon and Fantom networks, and the agreement has recently been launched on the Arbitrum network. Currently, Curve provides 2 liquidity pools of similar assets and 1 V2 liquidity pool on Arbitrum (see the figure below). At the time of writing, these pools have a total of more than 131 million US dollars in liquidity, and have achieved more than 590 Ten thousand dollars in daily trading volume. At the same time, Curve is also a popular income farming place to minimize the risk of impermanent losses for liquidity providers.

Like SushiSwap, although it is unclear whether the Curve protocol is planned to be deployed on the Optimism network, considering the multi-chain tendency of the protocol, it seems likely that the protocol will eventually be deployed on Optimism.L2 native application #1: Synthetix (SNX)

Because the transaction of Synthetix synthetic assets is computationally intensive, it is affected by the high gas fee of L1, which limits the growth of the Synthetix protocol in Ethereum L1. To this end, the Synthetix protocol began to work on unlocking its full capabilities on L2.Synthetix is ​​an early supporter and adopter of Optimism, and other projects are also built based on the deployment of Synthetix on Optimism. For example, the Kwenta exchange on Optimism allows users to mint and trade Synthetix’s synthetic assets (Synths); The option agreement Lyra has also been launched on Optimism. Currently, the agreement provides 2 incentive pools with a lock-up value of more than 12 million U.S. dollars.

Dopex is another one that may benefit from the lower transaction fees and faster transaction confirmation brought by L2.Dopex is a decentralized options protocol supported by DeFi celebrities such as Tetranode and DeFiGod. Currently, the farm of the agreement has locked in a value of more than 75 million U.S. dollars. Although the option agreement is still in the testnet stage, it is planning to deploy its mainnet on Arbitrum.

Both Sides of the Table

Perspectives of a 2x entrepreneur turned VC at @UpfrontVC#

Mark Suster

Written by

2x entrepreneur. Sold both companies (last to salesforce.com). Turned VC looking to invest in passionate entrepreneurs 〞 I*m on Twitter at @msuster

Both Sides of the Table

Perspectives of a 2x entrepreneur turned VC at @UpfrontVC, the largest and most active early-stage fund in Southern California. Snapchat: msuster

Mark Suster

Written by

2x entrepreneur. Sold both companies (last to salesforce.com). Turned VC looking to invest in passionate entrepreneurs 〞 I*m on Twitter at @msuster

Both Sides of the Table

Perspectives of a 2x entrepreneur turned VC at @UpfrontVC, the largest and most active early-stage fund in Southern California. Snapchat: msuster