Watkins also believes that stablecoins have the characteristics of local digitization, global accessibility, and resistance to seizure. It can provide chainlink crypto informationindividuals and institutions around the world with easy access to U.S. dollars to meet offshore U.S. dollar demand. The offshore U.S. dollar market may exceed 57 trillion U.S. dollars, so stablecoins have broad prospects and are extremely disruptive. Therefore, they are closely watched by regulators.
The Arbitrum team stated that Arbitrum consists of four parts, namely: smart contract of the agreement, AVM (virtual machine), ArbOS and asset bridge.bitcoin github first commitSmart contract of the protocol: Sometimes called EthBridge, it refers to the smart contract of the Arbitrum Rollup protocol on Ethereum. It ensures that the business above this layer can run correctly, and provides mediation if there is a dispute in the Arbitrum protocol. "Logic. (Chain note: The term Arbitrum comes from Arbitrium, which means arbitration, that is, "dispute resolution").
Arbitrum Virtual Machine (AVM): AVM virtual machine is similar to EVM (Ethereum Virtual Machine), it will execute computer programs, read input and produce output.ArbOS: ArbOS is an operating system (OS) running on the second-tier network that provides a compatibility layer that fully supports EVM. It will also serve as the recorder, supervisor and enforcer of smart contract execution on the Arbitrum chain. (Official documents on the introduction of AVM and ArbOS: https://developer.offchainlabs.com/docs/avm_design)Asset Bridge: Allow users to send Ethereum and other tokens between Arbitrum One and the Ethereum mainnet.Is there still room for Arbitrum One's transaction costs to drop?Although according to our previous estimates (https://www.chainnews.com/articles/115931150768.htm), Arbitrum's transaction cost can still be reduced by about an order of magnitude compared to the first layer of Ethereum, but according to the statistics of the L2 Fees website From a point of view, it is still several times higher than the cost of using some ZK Rollup networks.
However, you can also see that the L2 Fees website has also made some notes for Arbitrum. Arbitrum One, which is in the Beta stage, is currently artificially restricted. The opening of this restriction on the official mainnet in the future may further reduce transaction costs.We also asked the Arbitrum team about this topic. They said, "In the short term, we are working hard to reduce the basic cost of each transaction, that is, the cost allocated to each transaction in the batch release transaction. We will soon see Transaction costs have fallen.”On September 18, the government is paying close attention to the cryptocurrency circulating in foreign markets, because the agency responsible for checking financial fraud is paying attention to a company called Hyper Fund. According to sources, Hyper Fund, a subsidiary of Hyper Tech Group, has recently received attention. Hyper Tech Group said that the establishment of Hyper Fund is to provide a decentralized financial infrastructure. Hyper Fund was announced in mid-2020. According to the company’s website, it is led by Ryan Xu, but Hyper Fund with a multi-level marketing (MLM) model has been attracting investors with higher returns, and such issuance is a common practice under the Ponzi scheme, which first aroused the authorities Attention. According to sources, complaints against such funds have begun to emerge in multiple states.
Biquan News reported that on September 18, the Governor of the People’s Bank of China, Yi Gang, said in the opening speech of the Sino-German "Fintech and Global Payments Panorama-Exploring Xinjiang Region" video conference, saying that in recent years, financial technology has been growing rapidly in China. develop. Technologies such as artificial intelligence, big data, cloud storage, and blockchain continue to promote the digital transformation of financial institutions. The application of products and tools is becoming more abundant, and the efficiency and inclusiveness of financial services have been greatly improved. The development of financial technology has also effectively contributed to the rural revitalization strategy. The use of satellite remote sensing, electronic fence, blockchain and other technologies can dynamically monitor the production and operation of agricultural products such as agriculture, forestry, animal husbandry and fishery, promote the in-depth integration of capital flow, logistics, and business flow, improve the availability of financing for the agricultural industry and upstream and downstream enterprises, and help the agricultural industry modernization. In response to the lack of farmers’ “digital footprint” and other issues, digital means can also be used to improve the rural credit information system, which will help expand credit coverage.At present, Tencent continues to promote the establishment of technical standards for landmark agricultural products brand traceability, brand marketing and protection, brand image design and other sections, and makes full use of big data, Internet of Things, blockchain and other technologies to fully assist landmark agricultural products brands in areas with weak digitalization across the country. Accelerate growth.On September 15, the Maritime-Shutu Lingang Blockchain Technology Research Institute, co-built by Shanghai Maritime University and Shanghai Conflux Blockchain Research Institute, was established. It is reported that after the institute has landed in Lingang, it plans to carry out research and application in the following four aspects: Relying on the openness of Lingang and the tree map public chain, the exploration and application of "the construction of offshore RMB international payment channels based on the tree map public chain" will be carried out. Practice; combined with its own exploration and technological advantages, lead or participate in the construction of the port trade and financial blockchain standard system; create shipping blockchain technical standards and shape a new shipping ecology; develop a technological ecology and fully empower the industry.Coin Circle News reported that Glassnode data shows that the Realized Price of BTC has just reached a record high of US$21,025.87. It is reported that the "realized price" refers to the "realized market value" of the token divided by the current supply, and the "realized market value" is the market value calculated by adding up the market price of the token when it moves on the chain for the last time.
According to the latest industry research by the evaluation website CryptoHead, due to the surge of cryptocurrency ATMs and the growing interest of the state's population in digital assets, California has become the "most cryptocurrency-ready" jurisdiction in the United States. In the encryption readiness index, California beat New Jersey (5.44 points), Texas (5.28 points), Florida (5.03 points) and New York (4.29 points) with 5.72 points (out of 10 points). The state's total score is also 2.54 points higher than the national average.Cryptocurrency trader and YouTube influencer Lark Davis stated that Ethereum is expected to rise by 190% to reach a five-figure price. Davis told its YouTube subscribers that based on key fundamental factors, the second-largest crypto asset by market value is preparing to appreciate above $10,000. He believes that one of the reasons why the price of Ethereum will more than double is due to the decline in its exchange supply. According to Davis, the supply on exchanges has shown a strong downward trend over the past year, as holders have either locked their ETH in a decentralized finance (DeFi) protocol or used their ETH to buy NFTs. With the normal operation of the supply mechanism, it is only a matter of time before the ethereum supply crisis eventually pushes up prices severely.
Coin Circle News reported that Charles Gasparino, a member of the Fox Business panel, shared information received from sources close to Ripple Labs executives. Allegedly, the US Securities and Exchange Commission's XRP case harmed Ripple's domestic business in the United States, but its business is still booming overseas, further proof that the SEC's encryption enforcement agenda is forcing innovation to occur outside the United States.Statistics from CoinATMRadar show that up to now, the number of Bitcoin ATMs deployed globally has reached 27,670. Distributed in 73 countries or regions, including 24,290 units in the United States, 1904 units in Canada, and 205 units in El Salvador. Each of the remaining countries or regions is less than 200.Coincircle.com reported that the four largest listed Bitcoin miners in North America, Marathon Digital Holdings, HUT 8 Mining, Riot Blockchain, Inc, and HIVE Blockchain Technologies, have an average year-to-date return rate of 140%, while the return rate of Bitcoin is 49%. For those looking for indirect bitcoin exposure or value investment opportunities in the open market, holding equity in North American bitcoin miners is an option.Although Ethereum L2 provides many benefits, such as low gas fees, almost instant transaction confirmation, and inheriting the security of Ethereum L1, there has not been a good catalyst to promote the adoption of L2 until the first on Arbitrum The launch of ArbiNYAN, a major revenue farm, has pushed the TVL (total value of locked positions) of Arbitrum, an L2 network, from USD 238 million to over USD 2.5 billion in less than 5 days.
Although it is still in the early stages, it has fully proved the huge demand for Ethereum L2. Of course, this also raises a question: how can investors gain exposure to this trend? Let's explore some of these methods.Nothing in this article constitutes investment or financial advice. Please do your own research before making any decision.Investors do not have to bet directly on the success of a single application or L2 network. Instead, investors can configure the L2 infrastructure layer in their portfolio and choose those tools that power L2 to gain exposure.This strategy may be suitable for investors who want to avoid choosing who will be the winner in the L2 ecosystem, but still want to gain exposure to assets that will benefit from L2 growth. In addition, due to the network effects of these infrastructures and the huge barriers to entry faced by other competitive services, many infrastructure agreements are in a monopoly position and the competition they face is limited.
The DeFi protocol requires safe and trust-minimized oracle price feeds to realize contract pricing and timely liquidation activities. For example, almost all major DeFi protocols deployed on the Optimistic L2 network, including Synthetix, Aave, Curve, SushiSwap, Dopex, and other protocols, have integrated Chainlink (LINK) oracles into their feed prices to achieve timely settlement And other activities.The protocol not only needs to access data off-chain, but also data on-chain.
The Decentralized Data Index Protocol The Graph is another key component in the infrastructure stack. It provides an index of data on the chain, allowing applications to query data on the chain in a decentralized and trustless manner. The protocol supports a variety of different networks, including Ethereum L2 networks such as Arbitrum and Optimism, and is used by some Dapps applications that have been deployed in L2, such as Uniswap, Synthetix, and Futureswap.Similar to Chainlink, The Graph can provide exposure to a wide range of L2 networks and excellent Dapps without betting on specific L2 networks or applications.
Although compared with L1, the fast transaction confirmation of L2s and the reduction of gas fees significantly improve the user experience, but L2s still faces a series of unique challenges: Among them, it is worth noting that the withdrawal of funds from Optimistic Rollups to the main network requires a wait7 Days; it is also difficult to migrate liquidity between different L2s.Two projects, Hop Protocol and Connext, aim to solve this problem. These two projects allow users to seamlessly transfer assets between different networks compatible with EVM (Ethereum Virtual Machine), and allow users to withdraw funds "fast", allowing users to avoid withdrawal waiting periods.Although these two projects have not yet issued tokens, these systems are worth experimenting because they may provide retroactive airdrops for early users!The second way for investors to gain L2 exposure is by investing in popular apps. Any blockchain or L2s will only provide the best possible experience for the applications built on it-if there is no worthwhile application on a certain network, then no one will use the network.Because of this, applications running on one or more L2s can provide investors with varying degrees of risk exposure. Importantly, L2s represents an emerging market, and the existing Dapps protocol can increase its user base on L2s, thereby increasing its usage and revenue.There are two main types of applications that can provide investors with L2 exposure: “early adopters” who migrate from L1 to L2 and “L2 native applications”. There has been a substantial increase in applications.
In comparison, the “early adopters” of L2 may prove to be “safer” because these applications are not entirely dependent on the success of the underlying L2, and “L2 native applications” may represent a greater impact on a particular L2 network. Concentrated bets.Although the applications listed below are not comprehensive (there are many opportunities not included), let's take a look at the following examples.
Uniswap is the largest DEX (decentralized exchange) on Ethereum L1, and it is also the earliest adopter of Optimism L2 network. Uniswap was deployed on the Optimism network in July 2021. At the time of writing, the agreement has more than 32 million U.S. dollars of liquidity on the Optimism network, and has achieved a daily transaction volume of more than 10 million U.S. dollars in recent days.In addition to Optimism, Uniswap has also recently been deployed on the Arbitrum network. This deployment has enabled Uniswap to gain greater usage. In the past 4 days, the agreement has locked a total of 37 million U.S. dollars in value on the Arbitrum network, and generated more than 20 million U.S. dollars in transaction volume every day.
SushiSwap is another important decentralized exchange and an early adopter of L2. SushiSwap has already occupied a considerable market share on the Polygon L2 network and is also deployed on other blockchains such as Fantom, Avalanche and Harmony. In addition, SushiSwap is also one of the first protocols deployed on Arbitrum.Since September 10th, the deployment of the SushiSwap agreement on Arbitrum has achieved great success. At the time of writing, its liquidity exceeded US$27 million, and its daily transaction volume exceeded US$24 million. In addition, Sushiswap's performance sometimes even outperforms its main competitor Uniswap, with transaction volume exceeding $125 million on certain days. See below:
Although the SushiSwap team stated that given their multi-chain strategy, they may postpone deployment to the Optimism network, but it seems likely that they will eventually deploy to the network.Curve is another decentralized exchange that quickly embraced L2. Curve has almost monopolized the exchange of similar assets on the Polygon and Fantom networks, and the agreement has recently been launched on the Arbitrum network. Currently, Curve provides 2 liquidity pools of similar assets and 1 V2 liquidity pool on Arbitrum (see the figure below). At the time of writing, these pools have a total of more than 131 million US dollars in liquidity, and have achieved more than 590 Ten thousand dollars in daily trading volume. At the same time, Curve is also a popular income farming place to minimize the risk of impermanent losses for liquidity providers.Like SushiSwap, although it is unclear whether the Curve protocol is planned to be deployed on the Optimism network, considering the multi-chain tendency of the protocol, it seems likely that the protocol will eventually be deployed on Optimism.L2 native application #1: Synthetix (SNX)
Because the transaction of Synthetix synthetic assets is computationally intensive, it is affected by the high gas fee of L1, which limits the growth of the Synthetix protocol in Ethereum L1. To this end, the Synthetix protocol began to work on unlocking its full capabilities on L2.Synthetix is an early supporter and adopter of Optimism, and other projects are also built based on the deployment of Synthetix on Optimism. For example, the Kwenta exchange on Optimism allows users to mint and trade Synthetix’s synthetic assets (Synths); The option agreement Lyra has also been launched on Optimism. Currently, the agreement provides 2 incentive pools with a lock-up value of more than 12 million U.S. dollars.
Dopex is another one that may benefit from the lower transaction fees and faster transaction confirmation brought by L2.Dopex is a decentralized options protocol supported by DeFi celebrities such as Tetranode and DeFiGod. Currently, the farm of the agreement has locked in a value of more than 75 million U.S. dollars. Although the option agreement is still in the testnet stage, it is planning to deploy its mainnet on Arbitrum.
This means that the project can not only provide an investment method for investing in the emerging DeFi derivatives industry, but also increase exposure to the entire Arbitrum ecosystem.The decentralized perpetual contract exchange dYdX is another derivative protocol that releases its functions through L2.
dYdX has built its own L2 Rollup based on StarkWare's scalability engine StarkNet, and recently launched a liquid mining plan, which includes a retroactive airdrop of DYDX tokens worth $50,000 to some users. As a result, the attractiveness of the agreement began to increase, and its daily transaction volume increased by more than 10 times within 6 weeks, and it has remained above US$600 million.Perhaps the most direct way for investors to benefit from the success of a particular L2 network is to invest in the native tokens of that L2 network.Although the design space of L2 native tokens is emerging, and we don't know whether all L2 networks will issue their own native tokens, L2 native tokens can provide a similar role to L1 native tokens in terms of providing exposure to specific networks. Although it is unclear whether all L2s will issue tokens, users have the opportunity to place themselves in a position to receive retroactive L2 native token rewards.Loopring is one of the most prominent application-specific Rollups in the Ethereum expansion ecosystem. It provides a complete set of products based on ZK-Rollup, including an AMM (Automated Market Maker) and order book exchange.
Investors can gain exposure to the agreement, which has generated more than $2.7 million in revenue in the past year in the form of LRC tokens. LRC tokens are used to govern the system and serve as the final collateral. Investors can purchase the token directly, or obtain the token reward by providing liquidity to the exchange. In addition, the top 25 traders with the trading volume on the designated trading pair (see the figure below) can also receive LRC token rewards (starting on September 9, 2021, lasting 28 days; settlement cycle is 7 days, A total of 4 cycles).Immutable X is a ZK-Rollup built on StarkWare.
The agreement is optimized for NFT transactions and use in the emerging blockchain game field. Currently, it is using the "Play-to-Earn" model to motivate users to use the platform with IMX token rewards. . The IMX token plays several key roles in the operation of the network: users need to use IMX to pay 20% of the transaction fee, and users can use the token to vote on governance proposals. In addition, IMX holders can stake the tokens to obtain transaction fees paid by users to the network.When talking about L2, if Optimism and Arbitrum are not mentioned, it is obviously inappropriate.
Both of these two largest Optimistic Rollups networks have raised millions of dollars in funding, and none of them currently issue local tokens. In addition, despite their short time to go online, these two L2 networks have incurred millions of dollars in transaction fees, and these fees did not flow to their users in any way. Although it is unclear whether they will issue local tokens, if they initiate retroactive airdrops for early adopters, it may be worthwhile to become an active user of the two L2 networks.The season of L2 is finally here.