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The American Revolution

 

The American Revolution

The Birth of our great nation required the sacrifices of many to achieve independence from British tyranny and to ensure liberty.  The long struggle known as the American Revolution or War for Independence took place between 1775 - 1783.  Heroes such as George Washington led the military campaign which started in the North and then later moved to the Southern colonies.  Other great Founding Fathers such as John Adams worked for out political independence from England.  Thomas Jefferson wrote the Declaration of Independence proclaiming natural rights and that all men are created equal, an enlightenment idea the world had not yet embarrassed.    In the end the British played the tune "A World Turned Upside Down" as her colonies won their independence and the United States was born!

Multi-Media Downloads

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American Revolution Student PodCast

Revolutionary War Battle Chart

Battle Outlines

Information about each battle

Printable copy of the Notes

Power Points

 

The American Revolution Part I

 

The American Revolution Part II

 

The American Revolution Part III

 

American Revolution Journal Project Resources!

http://www.kidinfo.com/American_History/American_Revolution.html

 THE American Revolution

*Ft. Ticonderoga: - At 1st the Americans had no real army but instead small bands of men.
- the fort is near Lake Champlain in Canada (protected water routes to Canada)
- Ethan Allen & Green Mountain Boys along with forces under B. Arnold launch a surprise attack & take the fort (1775) English had not gotten word of Lexington & Concord – easily overrun (1 wounded)
- Americans gain control of area & capture 100 much needed cannons – these cannons will later be used to force the British under Gen. Howe to leave Boston after Henry Knox dragged the cannons on sleds through the snow (1776) this is called the Evacuation of Boston

*Second Continental Congress: Philadelphia 1775
- create Army - 20,000 men - Washington in command
-create the American Navy
- talk about union & independence
-Olive Branch Petition: told king they are still loyal
- ask to have Intolerable Acts repealed
- tried to remove obstacles to reconciliation

Advantages & Disadvantages:
England: strong nation/army/navy -- far from home
Americans: defending homes/rifles -- inexperienced

*Weapons & Tactics
-most widely used gun was the “Brown Bess” Musket – fires a musket ball – powder must be poured into barrel at its end and jammed down with a ram rod – hammer must also be primed before firing – a good soldier could fire about 3 shots a minute – Americans also had rifles that allowed for greater accuracy due to grooves in the barrel (ball spins) – field cannons were also used mostly 6lbs. To 10lbs. – cannon balls did not explode – instead they bounced across the ground - Tactics included armies lining up across from one another and firing – most armies wanted to fire second to be closer to their enemy – soldiers did not aim (although some Americans did) – they simply pointed in the general direction and concentrated their fire hoping to hit the other side – cannon balls would also rip through these lines – after a while a boynet charge would be ordered and hand to hand combat would begin
 

*1775 Battle of Bunker Hill: Americans take hill
- 1500 Americans slaughter British troops – English attack with three waves (bayonet charges)
- Americans finally run out of ammo
- Commanded by Col. Prescott -"Don't fire until you see the whites of their eyes!" - very costly for English over 1,000 killed many officers - both sides realize that they are in for a fight

*1775 Invasion of Canada:
- Attempt to get Canada to join cause (14th colony)
- Americans take & occupy Montreal
- Arnold fails to take Quebec City – vicious battle on New Years Eve (blizzard conditions) – most of -English troops had moved to Quebec after the fall of Montreal making Quebec well fortified – America came very close to capturing Canada
- French Canadians do not want to join

*1775 Thomas Paine "Common Sense"
- Pamphlets that encouraged revolution
- journalism & propaganda
- "The whole continent is controlled by a small island 3,000 miles away! We have a moral obligation to the world!"


**1776 The Declaration of Independence**
- Philadelphia/Liberty Hall -- Thomas Jefferson
- Signed July 4th, 1776 (sort of) “Independence Day””-- written by Thomas Jefferson after being asked by Ben Franklin (he did not like to write for public consumption)
- talks about natural rights & misdeeds of king
- "When in the course of human events . . ."
Results
- Makes the United States an independent nation
- invites foreign aid - Patriots are now rebels!

- The American Army
- 250,000 men severed @ some time
-mostly state Militia (all males 15-60) bring your own gun!
- Continental Army under Washington (national army) - hard to find volunteers (no draft)
- problems in Continental Army include harsh discipline/no supplies/ no food/ etc.

*The War after 1776*


Fighting in New York: March 1776: NYC occupied by England.
(500 ships/35,000 men)- General Howe in Command – left Boston (1776) to Halifax – then New York
Oct. 1776: Washington defeated in Battle of Long Island & other battles – American army often times simply runs – English take American forts -- army withdraws across Delaware River

Trenton: Dec. 1776: Washington’s troops enlistments are nearly up – Washington needs a victory -crosses the Delaware River on Christmas Eve and route Hessians (German mercenaries)
- Moral boost -- Hessians -- Army still in bad shape
*1777*

-Battle of Princeton: Washington once again pleads with troops to stay (great quality)! – wins the battle! - first US Flag appears
- army still hurting, but helps moral again

-Battle of Saratoga: (see map along the side of page)
-the British Blunder of 1777 0 English want to cut the colonies in half by attacking Albany New York – come up with a plan to attack from 3 directions – North (Burgoyne) West (St. Leger) South (Howe) – all three armies are to meet at Albany – battle is a series of smaller battles – Howe battles Washington at Brandywine & Germantown – he wins both battles but instead of moving north he occupies Philadelphia – St. Leger is fooled by B. Arnold and fails to take Ft. Oriskany – never gets to Albany – Burgoyne is bogged down in the woods – transporting wagon loads of person items – defeated by Gates – plan fails and the French decide to help USA – Franklin negotiates with Louis XVI

*1777-1780*
-Valley Forge: Washington makes winter came - American Army in real bad shape
- cold/no food/no supplies/etc. – many die of starvation, frostbite, and illness - becomes a training ground with the help of Layfayet and Von Steuben – Continental Army becomes a real army

-1780 Benedict Arnold in command of West Point (very strategic) does not receive a promotion
- plans to sell out Americans at West Point – gives plans to Andre – Andre is captured and hanged
- escapes to Canada joins British Army & fights Americans– Washington was very hurt – he trusted Arnold


*War in the South -- most under British control
- many loyalists or Tories – people loyal to England
-English land (Cornwallis) take Charlestown & Savannah (1780) – hope to work there way north
- American actions were mostly hit & run tactics by rebels (small groups)
- F. Marion “Swamp Fox” led these sort of attacks – English calvary (men on horses) officer Tarleton brutal and hated in South

*War at Sea – ships line up next to each other with cannons on side -England has the greatest navy in the world - most of American navy consisted of privateers (civilian ships which are armed) John Paul Jones defeats British ship (Serapis)off coast of England after his own ship had been sunk! - "I have not yet begun to fight!"

*George Rogers Clark & the Long Knives: Fight British & Indians in the Ohio Valley
-secures land west of Mississippi River for USA after the war – uses Indian tactics – very brutal – fights with English Gen. Hamilton (the Hairbuyer, due to his payment for American Scalps)

*Battle of Cowpens: changes the course of the war in the south – keep Cornwallis from moving north to attack Washington and destroying his army – instead Cornwallis waits for English navy at Yorktown
*1781 Battle of Yorktown*
- final battle of the war
- Cornwallis trapped between Wash/Lafayette and the French Navy -- forced to surrender
- America wins the Revolution!
-"British lost rather than Americans won!"

*1783 Treaty of Paris
- Ends war officially
- USA Independent nation
- USA gets all land west of Miss. River
(except Can. & Fla.)
- British leave US territory
- other terms

                        

 

 

 

Background of the Revolution Weapons, Tactics, Advantages, Women, & African Americans

 

2nd Period Historical Narrative PodCast

 

4th Period Historical Narrative PodCast

 

5th Period Historical Narrative PodCast

 

8th Period Historical Narrative PodCast

 

9th Period Historical Narrative PodCast

 

 

 

 Review Questions:


1. What was the Declaration of Independence? Where was it written? Who wrote it?

2. Who was the American commander at the battle of Bunker Hill?

3. Who attacked Fort Ticonderoga in 1775? What was the outcome? Why was it important?

4. What was the Olive Branch Petition?

5. The battle of Bunker Hill was actually fought on what hill near by?

6. Why did the Americans invade Canada in 1775? Where did they attack? What was the outcome?

7. What was “Common Sense”? Who wrote “Common Sense”? What did it inspire?

8. What were Tories? Where did many Tories live? What were Patriots?

9. Describe the battles of Trenton & Princeton. What were there outcomes?

10. Describe the battle of Saratoga. What did the English want to accomplish? What was the outcome?

11. What was Valley Forge? What problems did the army face? What did the men do at Valley Forge?

12. Describe the accomplishments of John Paul Jones? What was the war at sea like? What is a blockade?
What is a privateer?

13. Why was the battle of Yorktown significant? Who won the battle?

14. What were Red Coats? What is a Hessian?

15. What advantages did the English have at the start of the war? Disadvantages?

16. What advantages did the Americans have at the start of the war? Disadvantages?

17. Who were generals Howe, Burgoyne, & Cornwallis?

18. Who was George Rodgers Clark? Francis Marion?

19. Describe the war in the west. Describe the war in the south.

20. What treaty ended the war? What were the terms of the treaty?

21. What was the Continental Army?

22. Who was Betsy Ross?

23. What is a militia?

24. What nation helped the USA during the war? How?

25. Who was Benedict Arnold?

26. Who was Lafayette?

ESSAY QUESTION:
HOW WERE THE AMERICAN PEOPLE ABLE TO DEFEAT ENGLAND, ONE OF THE MOST POWERFUL COUNTRIES IN THE WORLD AT THE TIME, TO EARN THEIR INDEPENDENCE? GIVE EXAMPLES & EXPLANATIONS.


 

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