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Notes and Review Questions for the "Westward Expansion" Unit!

 

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-America’s most costly war over 640,000 killed

FORT SUMTER - April 12, 1861
-Charlestown South Carolina
-Lincoln sends governor of South Carolina note
explaining that the fort
was going to be re-supplied with food only
(Maj. Anderson in command)
-SC Gen. Beauregard shells fort for 34 hours - fort
surrenders
-first shots of the Civil War
Results:
1. Strategic victory for Lincoln - South fired the
first shots!
2. Lincoln asks for 75,000 Union volunteers (90-day
enlistments)
3. Union navy blockades southern ports
4. 4 other states secede - Confederate capital moved
to Richmond

MAP IN 1861:

North (Union States) - 22 states including California,
Oregon, & Nevada
-Abraham Lincoln president
South (Confederate States of America) - 11 States
-Jefferson Davis President
-South Carolina/
North Carolina/Virginia/Florida/Alabama/Mississippi/
Georgia/Arkansas/Tennessee/Texas/Louisiana

Border States (5): Occupied by the Union Army & never formally secede
-Missouri, Kentucky, West Virginia, Maryland, Delaware

ADVANTAGES & DISADVANTAGES FOR THE NORTH & SOUTH

NORTH:
ADVANTAGES 1. population:
22 million
2. 3/4 of manufacturing
3. banking & financing
4. 3/4 of railroads
5. naval blockade
6. natural resources
DISADVANTAGES:
1. time to mobilize
2. poor generals

SOUTH: The War Between the States
ADVANTAGES
1. defensive war (few troops/know land)
2. moral cause & determination
3. best West Point officers (Lee/Jackson)
4. good
raiders/riflemen
5. self-
confident 6. support from Europe (initially)

DISADVANTAGES:
1. supplies & shortages
2. population 9 mil. & 3.5 mil. slaves
3. poor transportation
4. organize new government
5. troops fight for state not central gov't
6. J. Davis not popular

LEADING THE ARMY: Lincoln searches for a commander to lead the Union army – the only officer that is qualified in “Old Fuss & Features” Winfield Scott (old, too fat to mount his horse) Scott suggests the “bravest man he has ever know” Robert E. Lee (fought with Lee during Mexican War) – Lincoln asks Lee to lead army – Lee is from Virginia – thinks about it – does not believe in secession or slavery – in the end he “cannot raise his sword against his country (Virginia) – Lee resigns from Union army and will become the greatest confederate general – Lincoln will have difficulty finding good commanders

WEAPONS: technology has improved since the Revolution and will improve during the war; however some generals will use the same Napoleonic style (lines in open fields) as they did in the early 1800’s – this will cause casualties – main type of fire arm was a mussel loading rifle – can be aimed and is accurate up to several hundred yards – fires a new bullet called a “Minie Ball” – bullet is conical, aerodynamic, and travels at a slow speed – Minie balls flatten out as they enter the body causing terrible wounds – many deaths (90%) caused by Minie Balls during the war as well as amputations – artillery is also improved some even with rifled barrels – projectiles now explode with an 8 second fuse – some filled with explosives others with explosives and shrapnel – “canister” also used – hundreds of metal balls fired from the barrel create a wall of hot metal - field guns/howitzers/mortars were all used – all officers carried swords to help give commands – most troops also had bayonets (not very effective – never could get close enough to use them) – the tactics had not caught up with the technology!


WAR AIMS FOR BOTH SIDES:
NORTH: 1. preserve the Union 2. few at first sought
to free the slaves
SOUTH: 1. defensive war for independence 2. preserve
slavery

WAR STRATEGIES:
SOUTH:
1. defensive war until the North gives up
(war of attrition)
2. plan to take (capture) Washington D.C.
3. take PA to divide North East & Midwest
(disrupt communication)

NORTH: “Anaconda Plan” (W. Scott)
1. blockade the South (Navy)
2. split the Confederacy by taking Mississippi River &
rail road lines
3. take Richmond - drive south to link with
Mississippi Valley

THE BLUE & THE GRAY:
-Union wears BLUE uniforms while the South wears GRAY
uniforms
-conflict divides families as well -
BROTHER AGAINST BROTHER!
-every casualty was an American = Europe likes that
fact = makes USA weaker
-North names battles after rivers & streams while
South names battles after towns
-both sides felt the war would be short

BATTLE OF BULL RUN (MANASSAS) - July 21, 1861
-location 30 miles from Washington D.C.
-Gen. McDowell (North) - wants to crush South
-Northern civilians come to watch & picnic
-Gen. Beauregard, Gen. Jackson, Gen. Jackson from South
-”There sits Jackson like a stone wall!”
-several attacks - North turned and ran (retreat)
-casualties: North 1,500 South 2,000

Results:
1. North realized it would not be a short war
2. North mobilized
3. inflated the ego of the South
4. Southern generals should have followed Northern
troops

UNION BLOCKADE: 3,500
-Union navy allows no ships to stop at Southern ports
-very effective - keeps supplies out
-blockade runners made $$$$ - 700% profit
-south had small navy, but heavily fortified coasts
-British respected it - did not want war with North

WAR AT SEA:
-Monitor (North) & Merrimac (South) - new type of ships
-Ironclads
-battle March 1862 - little significance in the
outcome of the war
-changes style of naval warfare

THE HOME FRONT:
Union:
-volunteers (each state had a quota) paid to enlist (bounty runners)
-Conscription Act 1863 - Draft
-”poor man’s war” - 20 - 45 in age
-could pay $300 not to serve or find a substitute to
serve for you
-caused draft riots in NYC 1863
-Irish immigrants refused to serve
***Black soldiers 10% of army (200,000) - much
prejudice from officers

Confederacy:
-Draft Law - April 1862 ages (17-50)
-1865 begin to use slaves behind the lines

ECONOMICS OF THE WAR:
-Union: years of good harvests & 85% of factories
-financed war with Morrill Tariff, Income tax, National Banking system issues war bonds, excise taxes, ”Greenbacks” (paper money)

Confederacy:
-sells cotton to UK - later UK unwilling to run
blockade
-finances war with excise tax, borrow from foreign banks, bonds, paper money, high inflation rate

FOREIGN POLICY:
England: 1861 - recognized the Confederacy - caused Northern resentment
Trent Affair: John Slidell & James Mason (Southern Ambassadors) caputured by Union Navy on board a British ship. English upset - send troops to Canada - delay in comm. cools situation - Lincoln apologizes.

1862 - Emancipation Proclamation: Europeans would support North if they felt preserving the Union would end slavery. - working class favors end of slavery

1862-63 - England builds ships to sell to the Confederacy - (Alabama, Florida, Shenandoah)
- 60 ships in all - British crews
attach Northern merchant ships
- British cautious did not want war
with England
*built Laird Rams - designed to destroy wooden ships with iron rams & guns - UK intents to sell them to the South, but does not - fears North will invade Canada

France: Loans to Confederacy - Emp. Napoleon III
-unfriendly to North
-built ships - wanted to support Confederacy until
Emanc. Proc.
-Invades & occupies Mexico - Maximillian - violates
Monroe Doctrine!

WARTIME CIVIL LIBERTIES:
Union:
1. Blockade ordered by Lincoln without Congress -
upheld by Supreme Court
2. Increase size of army without Congressional approval
3. $2 dollars to private citizens for military
purposes Art. I Sec IX - par 7
4. Suspended writ of habeas corpus
5. supervised elections in border states
6. some censorship - newspapers

Confederacy:
1. Confederacy based on state’s rights - weak
president - few restrictions
2. suffocated by Union blockade - Transportation
collapsed - self sacrifice required

ANTIWAR SENTIMENT IN THE NORTH:
-Copperheads: Democrats that oppose the war - peace at
any price (denounce Lincoln)
-Many arrested for treason - some exiled
-Clement Vallandigham ex-congressman from Ohio -
opposed war - arrested & banished to Canada

ELECTION OF 1864:
-Northern Democrats: Douglas dies 7 weeks after war
begins - no leader
-War Democrats: supported Lincoln
-Peace Democrats: Copperheads
-Union Party - Rep. & War Democrats - Lincoln -
soldiers vote for Lincoln (Bayonet Vote)
-Democrats - regular & Copperheads - McClelland - end
war

Results: Lincoln Wins! - 212 - 55%
McClelland - 21 - 45%

BATTLES OF THE CIVIL WAR:

THE WAR IN THE WEST:
-Gen. Halleck begins fighting in Missouri to keep it
in the Union
-Feb. 1862: Ft. Donelson & Ft. Henry - Captured by US
Grant “Unconditional Surrender” (Gunboats)
-Apr. 1862: Battle of Shiloh
-Grant defeated by Johnson at first - then Johnson
is killed in battle
-Confederates take too long to advance
-Grant reinforced - forced Southerners to retreat
-heavy casualties: 13,000 Northern & 10,500 Southern
-public outcry against Grant’s brutality “I can’t
spare him, he fights!” - Lincoln

-Spring 1862: New Orleans surrenders - Farragut & US
Navy
-Summer 1862: Confederacy split in 2 along Miss.
River - cut Texas off
-Apr. 1863: Vicksburg: Grant prepared to capture city - swampy & hard to advance
- dug in & besieged city - 6 weeks - starved out -
Vicksburg surrenders in July 1863

***North now controlled Mississippi River -
Confederacy cut in two!

WAR IN THE EAST:

Apr. 1862: Offensive against Richmond begins
- 40,000 troops left in Washington - 100,000 move
down the Potomac River
- pause to wait for reinforcements - 6 miles from
Richmond
- Conf. Johnson attacks & is wounded - replaced by
Robert E. Lee
- failure for North
Valley Campaign: Stonewall Jackson prevents supplies
from reaching McClellan
June 25-July 1862 Battle of Seven Days
- Lee attacks McClellan - McClellan retreats North
Aug. 1862: Second Battle of Bull Run
- Gen. Johnson (Conf) forces Union Gen. Pope to
retreat North to Washington
- South regains Virginia
Sept. 17, 1862 - Battle of Antietam (Sharpsburg)
-Lee invades Maryland to gain recognition from Europe - 50,000 troops
-Union soldier finds a copy of Lee’s plans wrapped up
around 3 cigars
-McClelland waits - Lee regroups - battle in a
cornfield - Lee forced to retreat
-significance: BLOODIEST SINGLE DAY IN AMERICAN HISTORY:
12,500 North - 11,000 South
-first major Northern victory - leads to Emancipation
Proclamation

-EMANCIPATION PROCLAMATION:
-frees slaves in Southern states only - gives war a
moral cause - free the slaves & preserve the Union

-Dec 1862: Battle of Fredricksburg: Lincoln replaced
McClelland with Burnside
-Army of the Potomac attacks Lee at Fredricksburg
-Confederacy defeated and North retreats (12,000 Union
Casualties) - Burnside relieved – horrible slaughter
-May 1853: Battle of Chancellorsville:
-Hooker replaces Burnside - Union Army cut in two &
retreats – Lee’s greatest victory
- Gen. Jackson killed accidentally by one of his own
men
-June 1-3, 1863 Battle of Gettysburg:
-Lee marches North into PA - wants to win foreign aid
-Union army under Meade - neither planned to fight
at Gettysburg
- Southern troops go into town looking for shoes -
seen by Union troops
- 3 day battle (76,000 South & 92,000 North -
troops)
- Pickett’s charge - Conf. march up a hill - 15,000
killed in 20 minutes
- Lee retreats - Meade does not follow - casualties
(17,000 Union - 22,000 Conf.)
-GETTYSBURG ADDRESS - Autumn 1862
Sept-Nov. 1863 Battles of Chickamauga & Chattanooga
-initial Union defeats
-Grant breaks through confederate lines deep into South (Missionary Ridge)

-1864: All signs point to Northern victory
-North - endless resources - South heavy losses - few
supplies - few Rail Roads
**GRANT is given full command of Union forces

GRANT’S 3 PLANS OF ATTACK! “Lobster Claw”
1. occupy Richmond - Grant
2. Take Atlanta - Sherman
3. Move from LA to join Sherman - never happens

-May 1864: Battle of the Wilderness: Lee vs. Grant
-Lee prevents Grant from moving (50,000
casualties) - battle fought in forest
-May 1864: Battle of Spotsylvania:
-Grant follows Lee - no victory - Grant continues to
follow
-June 1864 Battle of Cold Harbor:
-Grant defeated by Lee - changes tactics
-Summer 1864 Battle of Petersburg
-Petersburg railroad center Grant digs in and lays
siege (9 months)
- Grant send cavalry to Richmond (Sheridan) - Lee
attacks fort outside D.C.
- Lincoln inside fort during attack
- Confederates forced to retreat into the Shenandoah

SHERMAN’S MARCH TO THE SEA: Summer 1864
-Sherman destroys Atlanta and surroundings (300 miles
long, 60 miles wide)
-$100 million destroyed - Sherman’s Bowties (destroyed
rail lines) wrapped around trees
-destroys everything in his path TOTAL WAR! “War is
hell!”
-changes tactics and rules of war by attacking
civilian pop. centers
-attacks Savannah for Christmas - hated in the South
for years
-March 1865: Lincoln’s Second Inaugural Address “with
malice toward none . . .”
- Apr. 1865: Petersburg & Richmond fall
- Apr. 9, 1865 APPOMATTOX COURTHOUSE:
- Lee surrenders to Grant
- Conf. soldiers given rations - put down guns -
return home with horses
-Lee in full dress uniform - Grant in privates jacket

-Apr. 14, 1865 LINCOLN ASSASSINATED:
-Ford’s Theatre by John Wilkes Booth
“Our American Cousin”
-Booth - shoots, jumps onto stage (breaks leg)
says “Death to tyrants!”
-later captured & killed
-part of a larger conspiracy to kill gov't officials
-Andrew Johnson becomes president

-RESULTS OF THE CIVIL WAR:
-1 million killed or wounded
-cost North $3 billion & South $2 billion
-South physically destroyed (cities, farms, rail
roads, etc.)
-bitterness for generations
-North becomes more productive (industry)
-South fears black revenge - seeks to restore old way
of life.
-Nation needs to be put back together.
-Union is preserved!
-Slavery is abolished!

 

 

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ESSAY QUESTION: At the start of the Civil War, what advantages & disadvantages did the North & South each have? Be sure to list several for each side. In your opinion, what was the biggest advantage in determining the final outcome of the war? Be sure to support your opinion with facts & details.

1. Which side won the Civil War?
2. What were the Monitor & the Merrimack? Why were they significant?
3. Which slaves were freed as a result of the Emancipation Proclamation?
4. What problems did the Confederacy face during the war?
5. Why is General William Tecumseh Sherman significant? (Describe his role in the war)
6. List the Confederate states. List the Union States.
7. The Union refers to which side? The Confederacy refers to which side?
8. List the 5 border states. How did Lincoln keep them from leaving the union?
9. Where were the first shots of the Civil War fired?
10. Which battle did civilians pack picnic baskets to watch the battle?
11. How did the North name the battles? How did the South name the battles?
12. What goals or aims did both side have during the Civil War?
13. What kinds of weapons were used during the Civil War?
14. Who was Robert E Lee? Describe his accomplishments and beliefs.
15. Who was Thomas “Stonewall” Jackson?
16. What color uniforms did the Union wear? What color did the Confederates wear?
17. What is a blockade?
18. What was the Conscription Act? What were the results of the act?
19. Who were the Copperheads?
20. Who ran in the Election of 1864? Who won?
21. What was the capital of the Confederacy?
22. Who assassinated President Lincoln? Where was Lincoln killed?
23. Who was George McClellan?
24. What was the Union’s strategy? What was the Confederate strategy?
25. Which nation occupied Mexico during the Civil War? Who was Maximillian?
26. Describe the Battle of Vicksburg. Why was it important?
27. What was the bloodiest day in US history?
28. What did Lee hope to gain at the Battle of Antietam? How were his plans spoiled?
29. Discuss the Battle of Shiloh. What was the Hornet’s Nest? Who won?
30. Describe the Battle of Gettysburg. Where was it fought? Why was it important?
31. What was Pickett’s Charge?
32. What does emancipate mean? What it the draft? What was a bounty?
33. What is Habeas Corpus? What is a civilian? What is Cavalry?
34. Who was General Burnside?
35. Who was Mathew Brady? Why did he use for the first time on the battlefield?
36. What were Civil War hospitals like?
37. What was the Gettysburg Address? What did Lincoln say?
38. What was Sherman’s March to the Sea?
39. What is Total War?
40. What was Grant’s Strategy?