1. Election of 1808:
James Madison (Republican) vs. James Pinkney (Federal.)
Madison wins!-supported by Jefferson/farmers/south/west

2. James Madison: 5th President of USA
-From Virginia -- Father of the Constitution – short, intellectual, Jefferson clone politically

Madison's Foreign Policy: England & France at war!
-Both had laws & attack our ships
Orders of Council –English (All ships on route to
Europe must stop in England 1st & be searched)
Berlin-Milan Decrees –French (All ships that stop in
UK will be sunk)
Jefferson’s Embargo had not worked (hurt Americans more than Europeans) – Madison needs a different approach

Solution: Macon Act 1810
USA will trade with the country that repeals their law & promises not to trade with the other.
USA cannot lose – at least get on nation off your back maybe two - works better than the Embargo)
France (Napoleon) repeals law quickly
Parliament takes a long time to decide = Bad relations with

3. Battle of Tippecanoe: (Indiana, 1811)
-Tecumseh forms the Shawnee Confederation to fight the Americans in the West (armed by British)
-Tecumseh believes that the White man is responsible for all of the Native American's problems (alcohol)        -Tecumseh organizes an Indian uprising – his brother the Prophet is believed to be holy – many tribes attack white settlement
-Most Americans hate Native Americans "The only good Indian is a dead Indian!"
-Gen. William Henry Harrison (governor of Indiana Territory) is sent defeat Tecumseh
-Tecumseh's plots to kill Harrison after two meet – Harrison moves north toward Indian village of Prophetstown – a battle rages near the town (Tippecanoe) – the prophet had told the Indians that they would not be harmed and during the battle many were killed – Prophet loses his following – Tecumseh’s army disbands – Harrison wins at Tippecanoe & destroys Indian villages all across the territory
-Harrison becomes a hero! – Tecumseh moves to

4. Reasons for the War of 1812 (Road to War)
War Hawks: people in the
USA who want new lands & war (Canada/parts of Spanish Empire)
*Napoleon occupied
Spain(War Hawks want Florida & Cuba)
2. traditional attachment to
3. Indians (aided by
Impressment- England caputure US sailors
Orders of Council repealed two days before the Declaration of War - word did not reach USA in time
*England already fighting with Napoleon in Europe
*Most people in New England are not in favor of the war
(USA not prepared for War-no money/army in bad shape)

-Election of 1812: (Madison supported in the South)
Madison 128 votes defeats Clinton 89 votes

5. The War of 1812: (Major Battles)
USA invades Canada 1812 (3 pronged attack!)
-Attack at Detroit/Niagara/Lake Champlain
-All three fail,
USA surrenders Detroit
-some small navy victories for

USA (Gen. Dearborn) burns Toronto!
-June: HMS Cheasepeake captured under
"Don't give up the ship!"
Battle of Lake Erie
-Perry builds fleet in Erie PA
-battle fought near
Put-In-Bay, Ohio
-Major victoy for
USA - England leave Detroit
-"We have met the enemy and they are ours!"-Perry

*England uses a Naval Blockade of USA & impressment

-Oct Battle of Thames:
-Harrison attacks retreating British/Indians under Tecumseh (dies in battle)

July- Battle of Lundy's Lane: large land battle, both sides claim victory

August: British burn Washington (White House/Capital/other): Dolly Madison saves portrait of G. Washington

Sept. Battle of Fort McHenry
-Fort withstands British bombardment
-Francis Scott Key writes the poem
"The Star Spangled Banner!"
-flag can be seen at the Museum of American History in Washington D.C. -part of flag are missing (buried with men who served in fort--see bottom of the flag)

-December: Treaty of Ghent
-both sides stop fighting-borders go back to were they were before the war
-results for USA: Pride in USA (Nationalism)- survived two wars with England (Second Revolution)
-Europe recognizes USA as a real nation
-Indian troubles end for a while/more manufacturing/impressment ends

-Battle of New Orleans (1815)                                                                                                                                -New Orleans is very strategic – part three of English plan – English attack
-Andrew Jackson leads men to New Orleans – he is aided by Pirates
-Defeats English after the war had already ended -- word had not reach south.
-English lose 2,000 of 8,000 men in frontal attack
-Biggest American Victory of the War! (song)
Jackson becomes a Hero!

6. The Hartford Convention (1813)
-attended by (Mass,
Conn, RI, NH, Vert)
-some want separate peace with
England (war hurt trade)
-other ideas/Amendments for Constitution
-1 term president/abolish 3/5 comp. (House)/other
-nothing happened-country mad at
New England

7. Nationalism: pride in one's country
-Most significant result of the War of 1812
-People start to become loyal to the
United States, whereas before people were loyal to their states.
-"I was a New Yorker, but now I am an American!"
-Before War of 1812, most books/artwork/etc. were brought from
Europe --- Now Americans started to create & write American works (Webster's Dictionary)

8. Developing West: 9 new states between 1791-1819
-(1/2 free, 1/2 slave)
- No foreign powers in the way/cheap land

9. Roads/Canals/& Inventions:
Cumberland Road (National Highway)
Erie Canal (New York to Great Lakes)
-Robert Fulton invents the Steam Boat (1811)
-Eli Whitney invents the Cotton Gin (1793) = ties slaves to the south --- Cotton = big money

10. Industrial Revolution: starts in Europe
-Steam power 1750
-England has a monopoly in Textile (fabric) Mills
-Sam Slater memorizes plans & brings them to USA --
"Father of the American Factory"
-cotton form South & Mills in New England
-Boston Associates build 1st US Mills (Lowell Mills)
-hire young women to work in the factories
-surpluse of daughters -- cost family money
-women could not live on their own at the time
-bad working conditions, boarding houses, & long hours

11. James Monroe: Wins Elections 1816 & 1820
-From Virginia -- He is a Republican

12. "Era of Good Feelings"
-Federalist party has died out
-Nationalism sweeps across America after War of 1812
-At this time there are no political parties
-Everyone likes Monroe - runs unopposed in 1820

13. Henry Clay's American System:
America should become self-sufficient
-Factories in New England/Farms in the West & South
-no need for
Europe -- Plan never used

14. Missouri Compromise:
-North Controls House of Reps. -- more population
The Senate is Equal (11 slave states & 11 free states)
-Adding just Missouri upsets the balance
-Henry Clay compromises
-add both Missouri (Slave) & Maine (Free) = Senate

Independence for Latin America
-Spanish Colonies in revolt - want independence
Spain is weak -- sends troops from Florida to fight
-Other nations want to help
Spain after Napoleon is defeated --- Holy Alliance (does not include Eng.)

16. Adams Onis Treaty: Florida 1819
-Andrew Jackson sent to stop Seminole Indians from attacking Americans in
-Jackson crosses the border and captures Florida
-holds Spanish governor & officials hostage
-USA pays Spain for Florida --Spain too weak to fight back

17. Monroe Doctrine (1823-Present)
-In response to the Holy Allience
-Forbids European Colonies in the Western Hem.
USA sees new colonies as an attack upon the USA
USA will not interfere in European Affair.

18. Election of 1824: (Jackson/JQ Adams/Crawford/Clay run)
Jackson wins in total # of majority & electoral votes
Jackson does not receive a majority of the electoral votes. He needs 133 & get 99.
-The House of Reps. now must elect the new president
-Clay is the speaker of the House. He makes a deal with
Adams whereby Adams would win the election in the House, if Adams made Clay Sec. of State.
Adams agrees and wins = CORRUPT BARGAIN

20. John Quincy
Adams: Son of John Adams
-Favors rich and isolationism

21. Growth of Democracy:
-Before 1824 voters needed to be White, Male, 21, & own land -- land owners were usually rich.
-That changes in 1824 - now you do not need to own land in order to vote. More common people vote rather than just the rich elite.

22. Whigs & Democrats
-because of the Corrupt Bargain new parties form
-the "Era of Good Feelings" ends
Jackson's supporters for the Democrats (this is the same party we have today)favor the common man
-Adam's supporters form the Whigs- favor the rich

23. Election of 1828 & Andrew Jackson
-with the support of the common man,
Jackson wins the election & becomes the 7th president
-hold a huge party after the election which trashes the White House.

24. Spoils System: awarding political jobs to those people & friends who help you win an election regaurdless of their qualifications (Jackson 1st to use this)

25. Kitchen Cabinet:
Jackson appointed his friends to his cabinet. Did not find experts.

Jackson & the Bank:
Jackson dislikes banks after a bank almost took his savings in Tenn.
-Does everything he can to destroy the Bank of the

27. John C. Calhoun & Daniel Webster:
-Debate in congress over who has more power states or federal government
-Calhoun argues for State's rights – he is VP so Haynes speaks for him
-Webster argues for the power of the Constitution and the federal government. – Webster wins the debate


28. Nullification Crisis:
-Calhoun claims (secretly) that a state may consider a federal law null and void the state does not agree with the law.
South Carolina threatens to leave the Union is they must follow the Tariff of Abominations!
-The Nation is on the Brink of Civil War!
Jackson sends the army to South Carolina to show the power of the federal government. (small battle)
South Carolina does not leave the union

29. Indian Removal Act:
-Cherokee & other Indians are asked to leave their homes in the south. -- gold is discovered on their land
-they sue and ask the Supreme Court to stay -- they win -- John Marshall (Chief Justice)
-Jackson says "John Marshall has made his decision, now let's see him enforce it!"
Jackson then moves the Indians to OK - Trail of Tears --- many die along the way

30. Martin Van Buren:
Jackson severs 2 terms and backs Van Buren in the next election.
the little magician” – becomes unpopular – Panic not really his fault but

31. Panic of 1837: Economic Depression in
-land speculation causes the problem

32. W.H. Harrison will be elected because of the economic problems
-His slogan "Tippecanoe & Tyler Too!"
Harrison gets sick during inauguration speech & dies shortly after.
Tyler becomes President – he is not well liked - Tyler will later serve in the Confederate congress during the Civil War.