MADISON TO TYLER ADMINISTRATION

1. Election of 1808:
James Madison (Republican) vs. James Pinkney (Federal.)
Madison wins!-supported by Jefferson/farmers/south/west

2. James Madison: 5th President of USA
-From Virginia -- Father of the Constitution – short, intellectual, Jefferson clone politically

Madison's Foreign Policy: England & France at war!
-Both had laws & attack our ships
Orders of Council –English (All ships on route to
Europe must stop in England 1st & be searched)
Berlin-Milan Decrees –French (All ships that stop in
UK will be sunk)
Jefferson’s Embargo had not worked (hurt Americans more than Europeans) – Madison needs a different approach

Solution: Macon Act 1810
-
USA will trade with the country that repeals their law & promises not to trade with the other.
(
USA cannot lose – at least get on nation off your back maybe two - works better than the Embargo)
-
France (Napoleon) repeals law quickly
Parliament takes a long time to decide = Bad relations with
England!

3. Battle of Tippecanoe: (Indiana, 1811)
-Tecumseh forms the Shawnee Confederation to fight the Americans in the West (armed by British)
-Tecumseh believes that the White man is responsible for all of the Native American's problems (alcohol)        -Tecumseh organizes an Indian uprising – his brother the Prophet is believed to be holy – many tribes attack white settlement
-Most Americans hate Native Americans "The only good Indian is a dead Indian!"
-Gen. William Henry Harrison (governor of Indiana Territory) is sent defeat Tecumseh
-Tecumseh's plots to kill Harrison after two meet – Harrison moves north toward Indian village of Prophetstown – a battle rages near the town (Tippecanoe) – the prophet had told the Indians that they would not be harmed and during the battle many were killed – Prophet loses his following – Tecumseh’s army disbands – Harrison wins at Tippecanoe & destroys Indian villages all across the territory
-Harrison becomes a hero! – Tecumseh moves to
Canada

4. Reasons for the War of 1812 (Road to War)
1.
War Hawks: people in the
USA who want new lands & war (Canada/parts of Spanish Empire)
*Napoleon occupied
Spain(War Hawks want Florida & Cuba)
2. traditional attachment to
France
3. Indians (aided by
England)
4.
Impressment- England caputure US sailors
5.
Orders of Council repealed two days before the Declaration of War - word did not reach USA in time
*England already fighting with Napoleon in Europe
*Most people in New England are not in favor of the war
(USA not prepared for War-no money/army in bad shape)

-Election of 1812: (Madison supported in the South)
Madison 128 votes defeats Clinton 89 votes


5. The War of 1812: (Major Battles)
-
USA invades Canada 1812 (3 pronged attack!)
-Attack at Detroit/Niagara/Lake Champlain
-All three fail,
USA surrenders Detroit
-some small navy victories for
USA

*1813
-April:
USA (Gen. Dearborn) burns Toronto!
-June: HMS Cheasepeake captured under
Lawrence
"Don't give up the ship!"
-Sept:
Battle of Lake Erie
-Perry builds fleet in Erie PA
-battle fought near
Put-In-Bay, Ohio
-Major victoy for
USA - England leave Detroit
-"We have met the enemy and they are ours!"-Perry

*England uses a Naval Blockade of USA & impressment

-Oct Battle of Thames:
-Harrison attacks retreating British/Indians under Tecumseh (dies in battle)

*1814
July- Battle of Lundy's Lane: large land battle, both sides claim victory

August: British burn Washington (White House/Capital/other): Dolly Madison saves portrait of G. Washington

Sept. Battle of Fort McHenry
-Fort withstands British bombardment
-Francis Scott Key writes the poem
"The Star Spangled Banner!"
-flag can be seen at the Museum of American History in Washington D.C. -part of flag are missing (buried with men who served in fort--see bottom of the flag)

-December: Treaty of Ghent
-both sides stop fighting-borders go back to were they were before the war
-results for USA: Pride in USA (Nationalism)- survived two wars with England (Second Revolution)
-Europe recognizes USA as a real nation
-Indian troubles end for a while/more manufacturing/impressment ends

-Battle of New Orleans (1815)                                                                                                                                -New Orleans is very strategic – part three of English plan – English attack
-Andrew Jackson leads men to New Orleans – he is aided by Pirates
-Defeats English after the war had already ended -- word had not reach south.
-English lose 2,000 of 8,000 men in frontal attack
-Biggest American Victory of the War! (song)
-
Jackson becomes a Hero!

6. The Hartford Convention (1813)
-attended by (Mass,
Conn, RI, NH, Vert)
-some want separate peace with
England (war hurt trade)
-other ideas/Amendments for Constitution
-1 term president/abolish 3/5 comp. (House)/other
-nothing happened-country mad at
New England
-SIGNIFICANCE: FEDERALIST PARTY ENDS

7. Nationalism: pride in one's country
-Most significant result of the War of 1812
-People start to become loyal to the
United States, whereas before people were loyal to their states.
-"I was a New Yorker, but now I am an American!"
-Before War of 1812, most books/artwork/etc. were brought from
Europe --- Now Americans started to create & write American works (Webster's Dictionary)

8. Developing West: 9 new states between 1791-1819
-(1/2 free, 1/2 slave)
- No foreign powers in the way/cheap land

9. Roads/Canals/& Inventions:
-
Cumberland Road (National Highway)
-
Erie Canal (New York to Great Lakes)
-Robert Fulton invents the Steam Boat (1811)
-Eli Whitney invents the Cotton Gin (1793) = ties slaves to the south --- Cotton = big money

10. Industrial Revolution: starts in Europe
-Steam power 1750
-England has a monopoly in Textile (fabric) Mills
-Sam Slater memorizes plans & brings them to USA --
"Father of the American Factory"
-cotton form South & Mills in New England
-Boston Associates build 1st US Mills (Lowell Mills)
-hire young women to work in the factories
-surpluse of daughters -- cost family money
-women could not live on their own at the time
-bad working conditions, boarding houses, & long hours

11. James Monroe: Wins Elections 1816 & 1820
-From Virginia -- He is a Republican

12. "Era of Good Feelings"
-Federalist party has died out
-Nationalism sweeps across America after War of 1812
-At this time there are no political parties
-Everyone likes Monroe - runs unopposed in 1820

13. Henry Clay's American System:
-
America should become self-sufficient
-Factories in New England/Farms in the West & South
-no need for
Europe -- Plan never used

14. Missouri Compromise:
-North Controls House of Reps. -- more population
The Senate is Equal (11 slave states & 11 free states)
-Adding just Missouri upsets the balance
-Henry Clay compromises
-add both Missouri (Slave) & Maine (Free) = Senate

15.
Independence for Latin America
-Spanish Colonies in revolt - want independence
-
Spain is weak -- sends troops from Florida to fight
-Other nations want to help
Spain after Napoleon is defeated --- Holy Alliance (does not include Eng.)


16. Adams Onis Treaty: Florida 1819
-Andrew Jackson sent to stop Seminole Indians from attacking Americans in
Georgia.
-Jackson crosses the border and captures Florida
-holds Spanish governor & officials hostage
-USA pays Spain for Florida --Spain too weak to fight back

17. Monroe Doctrine (1823-Present)
-In response to the Holy Allience
-Forbids European Colonies in the Western Hem.
-
USA sees new colonies as an attack upon the USA
-
USA will not interfere in European Affair.

18. Election of 1824: (Jackson/JQ Adams/Crawford/Clay run)
-
Jackson wins in total # of majority & electoral votes
-
Jackson does not receive a majority of the electoral votes. He needs 133 & get 99.
-The House of Reps. now must elect the new president
-Clay is the speaker of the House. He makes a deal with
Adams whereby Adams would win the election in the House, if Adams made Clay Sec. of State.
-
Adams agrees and wins = CORRUPT BARGAIN

20. John Quincy
Adams: Son of John Adams
-Favors rich and isolationism

21. Growth of Democracy:
-Before 1824 voters needed to be White, Male, 21, & own land -- land owners were usually rich.
-That changes in 1824 - now you do not need to own land in order to vote. More common people vote rather than just the rich elite.

22. Whigs & Democrats
-because of the Corrupt Bargain new parties form
-the "Era of Good Feelings" ends
-
Jackson's supporters for the Democrats (this is the same party we have today)favor the common man
-Adam's supporters form the Whigs- favor the rich

23. Election of 1828 & Andrew Jackson
-with the support of the common man,
Jackson wins the election & becomes the 7th president
-hold a huge party after the election which trashes the White House.

24. Spoils System: awarding political jobs to those people & friends who help you win an election regaurdless of their qualifications (Jackson 1st to use this)

25. Kitchen Cabinet:
Jackson appointed his friends to his cabinet. Did not find experts.

26.
Jackson & the Bank:
-
Jackson dislikes banks after a bank almost took his savings in Tenn.
-Does everything he can to destroy the Bank of the
USA

27. John C. Calhoun & Daniel Webster:
-Debate in congress over who has more power states or federal government
-Calhoun argues for State's rights – he is VP so Haynes speaks for him
-Webster argues for the power of the Constitution and the federal government. – Webster wins the debate

 


28. Nullification Crisis:
-Calhoun claims (secretly) that a state may consider a federal law null and void the state does not agree with the law.
-
South Carolina threatens to leave the Union is they must follow the Tariff of Abominations!
-The Nation is on the Brink of Civil War!
-
Jackson sends the army to South Carolina to show the power of the federal government. (small battle)
-
South Carolina does not leave the union

29. Indian Removal Act:
-Cherokee & other Indians are asked to leave their homes in the south. -- gold is discovered on their land
-they sue and ask the Supreme Court to stay -- they win -- John Marshall (Chief Justice)
-Jackson says "John Marshall has made his decision, now let's see him enforce it!"
-
Jackson then moves the Indians to OK - Trail of Tears --- many die along the way

30. Martin Van Buren:
Jackson severs 2 terms and backs Van Buren in the next election.
the little magician” – becomes unpopular – Panic not really his fault but
Jackson’s

 
31. Panic of 1837: Economic Depression in
USA
-land speculation causes the problem

32. W.H. Harrison will be elected because of the economic problems
-His slogan "Tippecanoe & Tyler Too!"
-
Harrison gets sick during inauguration speech & dies shortly after.
-
Tyler becomes President – he is not well liked - Tyler will later serve in the Confederate congress during the Civil War.