Road to Revolution 


DIRECTIONS: During this unit, we will discuss basic concepts surrounding the “Road to Revolution”.  Complete the essential questions for each topic using classroom discussions, class notes, your text book, and www.mrgigliotti.com.  This guide through the material can be used to help you compose your History Journal short essay questions, study for tests and quizzes and answer questions during classroom review sessions.

 

Road to Revolution Timeline of Events

 

 

1754 -1763- The French & Indian War

1763 - Pontiac’s Rebellion & Proc. of 1763

1764 - The Sugar Act

1765 - The Quartering Act & Stamp Act

1766 - The Declatory Act

1767 - Townshend Acts

 

 

1770 - The Boston Massacre

1770 - 1772 – The Quiet Period

1772 - The Gaspee Incident

1773 - The Tea Act & Boston Tea Party

1774 - The Intolerable Acts

1775 - Battle of Lexington & Concord

 

The Road to Revolution Key Terms

 

A.  Key Terms:

 

1.  A “colonist” is ______________________________________________________________?

 

2.  The “English” are ___________________________________________________________?

 

The French and Indian War (Seven Years War 1754-1763)

 

B.  North American Map Review and Introduction:

 

1.  Maps can often illustrate various historical events and changes.  Look at the two maps below. 

     What nations controlled parts of North America in 1754 and then in 1763?  How did the

     map of North America change in just ten years?  What do you think could have caused the

     map of North America to change?

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


C.  Life in the Colonies:

 

1.  Prior to 1754, people in the colonies enjoyed _______________ like no other place in

 

     the ______________?

 

2.  The colonies had _______________ natural resources, thousands of acres of available

 

     _______________, and a large amount of _______________ government?

 

D.  A Bigger World:

 

1.  The colonies were often affected by ______________ that took place in other parts of the

 

     _______________ such as Europe?

 

2.  European nations such as England, France, the Netherlands, Austria, Spain, and others were

 

     often at _______________ with one another and sometimes those ______________ spilled

 

     over into the ______________?

 

3.  Prior to 1754, _______________ and _______________ had fought three major

 

     ______________ which included: King William’s War (1688-1697), Queen Ann’s War (1702-

    

     1713), and King George’s War (1744-1748).  These _______________ were each part of

     larger European conflicts that included fighting in North America.

 

E.  The Ohio Ignites:

 

1.  Both France and England claimed the area around the “Forks of the ______________ River”?

 

2.  The English had built _______________ near the “Forks of the ______________ River”?

 

3.  The French sent their _______________ allies to attack and destroy the English

 

     _______________ near the _______________ River?

 

4.  The French also build a chain of _______________ between ______________ and the

 

     ______________ River to secure their claim to the area?

 

5.  Land speculators in Virginia also claimed the land around the “Forks of the ______________”

 

     River near which the French had built their _____________?

 

6.  To secure Virginia’s claim, the governor of Virginia sent a young surveyor, who was also an

 

     officer in the Virginia militia named _______________, to tell the French

 

     to _______________?

 

 

 

 

F.  Fighting Along the Banks of the Ohio River:

 

1.  When the French refused to _______________, George _______________ returned to the

 

     “Forks of the _______________” with an army of 150 Virginia militia men and

 

     _______________ a small French force?

 

2.  Although initially Washington _______________ a small French force, the French soon

 

     _______________ attacked and built another fort named “Fort Duquesne” near the “Forks of

     the Ohio”?

 

3.  To defend against the French _______________ attack, Washington built a hastily

 

     constructed fort he named “Fort _______________”?

 

4.  Outnumbered 4 to 1, Washington was _______________ by the French and forced to

 

       _______________ at the battle of “Great Meadows” on July 4, 1754?

 

5.  This series of events led to the beginning of the _______________ which was part of a larger

 

      world war known as the _______________?

 

 

6.  The “_______________ War” was fought between the _______________ and the

 

       _______________ against the _________________ and their ________________ allies?

 

G.  The Albany Plan (1754):

 

1.  Each of the 13 colonies fielded a _______________ or an army, to fight with the regular

     English troops against the French and the Indians.

 

2.  At a meeting in Albany, New York in 1754 to prepare the colonies for war, _______________

 

     suggested that the colonies _______________ their militias in order to defend the colonies

     and fight the French?

 

3.  His plan was _______________ by both the colonies and the king; however it was the first

 

     time that anyone had suggested _______________ the colonies?

 

4.  Why do you think that the colonies would be opposed to uniting their militias?  Why

     might the English king have forbad a united colonial army?

 

 

H.  English Defeats and French Victories:

 

1.  The English general sent to the colonies to lead the British army against the French was

 

     named General _______________?

 

 

 

2.  General ____________ colonial aid was none other than _______________?

 

3.  General _______________ decided to attack “Fort Duquesne” using _______________ style    

     warfare in which soldiers stood in straight lines out in the open even though

 

     ________________ had warned him that the French would be fighting much like the

 

     _______________ and hiding behind cover?

 

4.  At the “Battle of the Wilderness”, the English were _______________ very badly and General

 

     _______________ was _______________?

 

5.  With the “Battle of the Wilderness” and other British _______________ around the world, the

 

     war was not going well for _______________?

 

I.  A New English Leader:

 

1.  The group of legislators who make laws in England is called the _______________?

 

2.  The leader of the _______________ is known as the _______________?

 

3.  In 1757, William _______________ became _____________ of England?

 

4.  Pitt felt that even though the English also were fighting the French in Europe and in India that

 

     the English should focus on winning the war in _______________ first?

 

5.  What THREE improvements did William Pitt make to win the French and Indian War?

 

     a.                                                              b.                                                        c.

 

J.  The Tide Turns in Favor of England:

 

1.  With Pitt’s efforts the war begins to turn in favor of the _______________?

 

2.  The English are able to capture Fort _______________ and rename it Fort _______________

     after their Prime Minister?

 

3.  The city of _______________ now stands were “Fort ______________“once stood at the 

     “Forks of the Ohio River”?

 

4.  The English are also victorious in several other _______________ in North America and

     around the world?

 

K.  The Battle of Quebec:

 

1.  Quebec was a large heavily fortified _______________ along the banks of the

 

     _______________ River?

 

2.  The English general at the “Battle of Quebec” was named _______________?

 

3.  The French general at the “Battle of Quebec” was named ______________?

 

4.  The English army under the command of _______________ surprised the French forces by

 

      _______________ the steep cliffs around the city during the night?

 

5.  The French were _______________ at the “Battle of Quebec” on the “Plains

                                                                                                          

     of ______________?”

 

L.  The Treaty of Paris (1763):

 

1.  With English _______________ in North America, India, and Europe the “French and Indian

     War” (“Seven Years War)” was ended in 1763 with the signing of the

 

     “Treaty of _______________?”

 

2.  As a result of the “Treaty of Paris” the French were forced to give up all claims to

 

     _______________ and “New France” was taken over by the _______________?

 

M.  Results of the French and Indian War:

 

1.  Although the English were victorious over France, the war left England _______________?

 

2.  The English felt that the _______________ should pay for the war?

 

3.  To raise money, the English will begin to place a series of ______________ on the colonists

     and begin to strictly enforce the “Navigation Acts”?

 

4.  The Colonists saw during the war that the English army was not _______________?

 

5.   After the war, many colonists begin to think that now that the French were no longer a threat

 

       who needs the _______________ anymore?

 

A Growing Rift

 

N.  Colonial Unity and Disunity:

 

1.  Each one of the original 13 Colonies was _______________ and ______________?

 

2.  The colonies were not ______________ in anyway and had little to do with one another?

 

3.  After the French and Indian War, the colonist realized that even though they were all very

 

     different, they did all had one thing in common which was _______________?

 

O.  Pontiac’s Rebellion (1763):

 

1.  After the French and Indian War, English settlers began to move ______________ into land

 

     already occupied by _______________?

 

2.  Native Americans near the Great Lakes under the leadership of a chief named

 

     _______________ began to _______________ these English settlements?

 

3.  Although the Native Americans were somewhat successful in their attacks, they were never

 

     able to take the English ______________?

 

4.  General _______________ decided to use a form of biological warfare against the Native

 

     Americans by giving them blankets infected with _______________?

 

5.  After a decisive battle in Pennsylvania, the Native Americans and Pontiac were finally

 

     _______________ by the English?

 

P.  The Proclamation Line of 1763:

 

1.  The English realized that an _______________ would be needed to protect western colonial

 

     settlers from future Native American attacks and that maintaining such an _______________

 

     would be very _______________?

 

2.  With little money to spend on the further defense of the colonies, the British passed a law

 

     know as the “Proclamation of 1763” which stated that colonists could not move

 

     _______________ of the _______________ Mountains?

 

3.  Colonists _______________ the “Proclamation of 1763” and many colonists disobeyed the

     law?

 

Q.  What Does England Want From the Colonies?

 

1.  After the French and Indian War, the relationship between the ______________ and

 

     _______________ began to sour.

 

2.  The French and Indian War left England _______________ and the English felt that the

 

     _______________ should pay for the war and their own defense?

 

3.  The English began to place a series of ______________ on the colonists and also begin to

 

     strictly enforce the _______________?

 

4.  The Colonists did not feel that they should have to pay these new _______________ because

 

     they had no _______________ in the English Parliament?

 

R.  Getting What the English Want:

 

1.  Prime Minister Grenville decides that not only should the colonists have to pay new

 

     _______________, but that the ________________ must be strictly enforce in order to raise

     money for the English Treasury?

 

 

 

2.  The _______________ required that all ships carrying cargo from the colonies to Europe must

    

     go through _______________ first, to support the economic theory of _______________?

 

3.  “Admiralty _______________” with English judges were set up to try those people who

     violated the “Navigation Acts”?

 

4.  A “Writ of _______________, was an English _______________ that allowed the authorities

     to search for anything, anywhere, and at anytime?

 

5.  The English would used _______________, known as _______________ because

     of their bright red uniforms, as policemen in order to enforce the laws?

 

Troublesome Taxes

 

S.  The Sugar Act (1764):

 

1.  The “Sugar Act” was an English tax on _______________ from the West Indies?

 

2.  Another word for a tax on an item is a ______________?

 

3.  Even though the “Sugar Act” only effected a small number of colonists, the colonists

 

     _______________ the act until it was eventually lowered?

 

T.  The Quartering Act (1765):

 

1.  The “Quartering Act” required that colonists allow English _______________ to live in their

     homes?

 

2.  Give TWO reasons why the English would want to establish the “Quartering Act”?

 

      a.                                                                      b.

 

U.  The Stamp Act (1765):

 

1.  The “Stamp Act” was an English tax on all _______________ products?

 

2.  Colonists reacted _______________ to the “Stamp Act” and _________________ broke out   

     in nearly all of the major colonial cities?

 

3.  Colonists stated that since they did not have _______________ in “Parliament” that they did

     not have to pay the tax?

 

4.  The colonists famous slogan to express this idea was: “_____________________________”?

 

5.  The colonists stated that they would only pay taxes passed by Colonial _______________

 

     were they had _______________?

 

6.  A meeting in New York City of important colonial leaders that was held to discuss how to best

 

     deal with the “Stamp Act” was called _______________? 

 

 

 

7.  When a _______________ to the King and Parliament did not work, colonial leaders

 

     established a ______________ of all British goods in the colonies?

 

8.  A “boycott” is: ______________________________________________________________?

 

9.  A group of angry colonists led by _______________ known as the ______________ enforced

 

     the “boycott” through the use of _______________ means?

 

10.  Eventually, because English business were losing money due to the “boycott” England

 

       _______________ or took away the “Stamp Act” in 1766?

 

11.  Parliament did however also pass a law known as the _______________ which stated that

 

       England had the right to _______________ the colonists anytime they wished?

 

Things Heat Up!

 

V.  The Townshend Acts (1767):

 

1.  In 1767, England passed a series of new taxes known as the “Townshed Acts” on imports to

 

     the colonies such as _______________________________________________________?

 

2.  The colonists once again began a “boycott” known as the _______________?

 

3.  The _______________ was unsuccessful because colonists were not as angry about the    

   

     “Townshend Acts” as they were about the _______________?

 

4.  Why do you think that the colonists were not as upset about the “Townshend Acts” as they

     were about the “Stamp Act”?  What is the difference between a “Direct” and an “Indirect” tax?

 

 

W.  The Boston Massacre (1770):

 

1.  The City of Boston was a hotbed of anti-British activities largely because of the “

 

     _______________” who often tormented British Soldiers within the city?

 

2.  In March of 1770, a group of angry colonists began to _______________ British soldiers

     guarding a customs house in Boston?

 

3.  Many of the colonists tossed _______________ with rocks inside them at the British soldiers

     and some of the colonists even brandished large clubs?

 

4.  Tensions rose between the colonists and the British soldiers until the “redcoats” accidentally

 

     _______________ on the crowd who had gathered to protest them.

 

5.  When the smoke cleared, five colonists had been _______________ including

 

      _______________ who was a freed slave and is often considered the first causality of the

      American Revolution?

6.  Some of the British soldiers who fired the shots were put on trial in Boston for the shootings

 

     and were represented by _______________, the finest lawyer in Boston? 

 

7.  Member of the “Sons of Liberty” used the incident as _______________?

 

8.  “Propaganda” is: ___________________________________________________________?

 

9.  Look a Paul Revere’s famous carving of the “Boston Massacre” below.  What do you see

     taking place in the picture below?  From whose point of view was it created?  How might this

     picture effect the colonists’ perception of the British?

 

 

 


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

X.  Colonial Leaders:

 

1.  After the “Boston Massacre” leaders in each of the colonies began to communicate news

     about the British in their colonies by circulating letters to one another in what was known as

 

     the “Committee of_______________”?

 

2.  List at least FOUR colonial leaders below.  You should also indicate which colony they are 

     from in the chart provided.

 

Colonial Leader

Colony They are From:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Y.  The Quiet Period (1770-1772):

 

1.  After the “Boston Massacre” in 1770, a calm period of time in which tensions between the

 

     colonies and Great Britain eased until 1772 was called the _______________?

 

2.  The new King of England at this time was named King _______________?

Z.  The Gaspee Incident (1772):

 

1.  The “HMS Gaspee” was a British _______________ that ran aground off the coast

 

     of ______________ in 1772 while enforcing the “Navigation Acts”?

 

2.  The “Sons of Liberty” _______________ the ship and placed its captain on _______________

     for stealing colonial goods?

 

3.  While the “Sons of Liberty” used the “Gaspee Incident” as _______________ this action

     effectively ended the “Quiet Period”?

 

AA.  The Tea Act (1773):

 

1.  The British government gave the “_______________ Tea Company” a _______________ on

     all tea sold in the colonies?

 

2.  A “monopoly” is: ____________________________________________________________?

 

3.  Colonists feared that if the British could impose a _______________ on tea, they might also

     impose monopolies on other items which would hurt colonial businesses and allow England to

     control the price of these items?

 

4.  Colonists worried that if they _______________ the tea it would appear that they

 

     _______________ with the “Tea Act”?

 

AB.  The Boston Tea Party (1773):

 

1.  Meetings were held in Boston by the “Sons of Liberty” demanding that the tea be sent back

 

     to _______________?

 

2.  When the royal governor of Massachusetts refused to return the tea to England, the colonists

 

     dressed up like _______________,  boarded the tea ships in Boston Harbor, and

 

     ____________ the tea into the ocean?  This was known as the _______________?

 

3.  Many colonists supported the _______________ and tea ships in other cities were ordered by

 

     the British to return to _______________?

 

AC.  The Intolerable Acts (1774):

 

1.  The “Intolerable or Coercive Acts” were laws imposed by King George III on Boston in order to

 

     _______________ Boston for the “Tea Party”?

 

2.  King George III wanted Boston to _______________ for the tea and wanted to show the

 

     colonies that he was in _______________?

 

 

 

 

3.  List and Describe the SIX parts of the “Intolerable Acts” below:

 

     a.

 

     b.

 

     c.

 

     d.

 

     e.

 

     f.

 

AD. The First Continental Congress (1774):

 

1.  Although the “Intolerable Acts” only affected the people in Boston and in Massachusetts,

 

     people in other colonies feared that the same thing could happen in their _______________?

 

2.  Representatives from several colonies met in _______________ in order to decide what to do

     about the “Intolerable Acts”?

 

3.  The members of the “First Continental Congress” agreed to _______________ all British

 

     goods until the “Intolerable Acts” were _______________?

 

4.  The members of the “First Continental Congress” also agreed that each colony should begin

 

     forming and training a _______________ or citizen _______________?

 

5.  The “First Continental Congress” also agreed to _________________ the people of Boston by

 

     smuggling in supplies, to ______________ again and even discussed _______________ the

     colonies?

 

AE.  Lexington and Concord (1775):

 

1.  General ______________ was placed in charge of Boston with over 4,000

 

     British ______________?

 

2.  _______________ sent 700 of his “redcoats” out of Boston in the middle of the night looking to

 

     remove weapons from an _______________ in Concord Massachusetts and capture

     members of the “Sons of Liberty” such as Samuel Adams?

 

3.  An “arsenal” is: ________________________________________________________?

 

4.  Colonists named _______________ and ______________ warned citizens along the road

 

     between Boston and Concord that the “______________ were coming”?

 

 

 

 

5.  Those warnings alerted the _______________ who were members of the “militia” who   

    

     promised to be ready at a _____________ notice?

 

6.  Seventy “Minutemen” met the advancing British army in the town of _______________ and

     refused to let the British pass?

 

7.  During this encounter a _______________ rang out and the two sides exchanged fire.  This

 

     was known as the _______________?

 

8.  After “Lexington”, the ________________ fled and the British army continued to march on

 

     to _______________?

 

9.  Another small battle took place on “Concord _______________” between the

 

     _______________ and the British in which the colonists were _______________?

 

10.  The British began a long and bloody march back to Boston, and were engaged by hundreds

 

       of _______________ using _______________ tactics firing behind trees and stones?

 

11.  The “Battle of Lexington and Concord” was the first battle of the _______________?