. 
 
 
   
                                                                                                     
   
 

Unit #7: Imperialism - Advanced Organizer
 
  Learning Target: I can IDENTIFY motivations for Imperialism by industrialized nations during the late 1800s and early 1900s.

I know I know it when: I can define the term "imperialism" and locate colonial possessions around the globe.

I am learning this because: Today many nations still have unresolved problems dating back to the Age of Imperialism including some artificial borders and Third World concerns.




Directions:
 
Directions: Please follow the directions in the box below to complete the assignment.  Be sure to complete the assignment and carefully check your work before submitting your assignment for a grade. 




Part 1: What is Imperialism?

1.   Industrialization stirred the ambitions of the industrialized nations!  European nations, as well as the United States, sought more resources to fuel their industrialization.  Each of these industrialized nations
      increased their power and influence around the world through a policy of imperialism in places such as Africa and Asia.  In this unit, we will learn more about imperialism and its effect on global affairs. 

      Take a moment to download the Age of Imperialism Advanced Organizer Student AssignmentBe sure to click File > Save As Google Slides before you begin


2.  Next, read the definition of the term “Imperialism” on slide #2.  Rewrite the definition in your own words below the quote. 
 

 

“Imperialism” is a policy of extending the control or authority over foreign entities as a means of acquisition and/or maintenance of empires, either through direct territorial or through indirect methods of exerting control on the politics and/or economy of other countries. The term is used by some to describe the policy of a country in maintaining colonies and dominance over distant lands, regardless of whether the country calls itself an empire.

 

 



         



3.  Discuss your definition with the class.

      



Part 2: The Age of Imperialism Read Passages

1.  Next read the 3 passages about the Age of Imperialism in your  Age of Imperialism Advanced Organizer Student AssignmentYou will also find the readings below. 

2.  As you read, use your highlighter tool to note the MOST important information in each passage. 

3.  Be prepared to share what you highlighted.  

4.  Answer the questions at the end of each passage in your Age of Imperialism Advanced Organizer Student Assignment.

 

 

Passage #1 “The Age of Imperialism"

 

Although the Industrial Revolution and nationalism shaped European society in the nineteenth century, imperialism—the domination by one country or people over another group of people—dramatically changed the world during the latter half of that century. Imperialism did not begin in the nineteenth century.   From the sixteenth to the early nineteenth century, an era dominated by what is now termed Old Imperialism, European nations sought trade routes with the Far East, explored the New World, and established settlements in North and South America as well as in Southeast Asia. They set up trading posts and gained footholds on the coasts of Africa and China, and worked closely with the local rulers to ensure the protection of European economic interests. Their influence, however, was limited. In the Age of New Imperialism that began in the 1870s, European states established vast empires mainly in Africa, but also in Asia and the Middle East. Unlike the sixteenth- and seventeenth-century method of establishing settlements, the new imperialists set up the administration of the native areas for the benefit of the colonial power. European nations pursued an aggressive expansion policy that was motivated by economic needs that were created by the Industrial Revolution.

 

 Between 1870 and 1914, Europe went through a “Second Industrial Revolution,” which quickened the pace of change as science, technology, and industry spurred economic growth. Improvements in steel production revolutionized shipbuilding and transportation. The development of the railroad, the internal combustion engine, airplanes, and electrical power generation contributed to the growing industrial economies of Europe and their need to seek new avenues of expansion. The expansion policy was also motivated by political needs that associated empire building with national greatness, and social and religious reasons that promoted the superiority of Western society over “backward” societies. Through the use of direct military force, economic spheres of influence, and annexation, European countries dominated the continents of Africa and Asia. By 1914, Great Britain controlled the largest number of colonies, and the phrase, “the sun never sets on the British Empire,” described the vastness of its holdings. Imperialism had consequences that affected the colonial nations, Europe, and the world. It also led to increased competition among nations and to conflicts that would disrupt world peace in 1914.

 

Questions for Passage #1

 

1. What were some of the causes of “Old Imperialism?”  

 

2.  How did Imperialism change around the year 1870?  

 

3.  What was the “Second Industrial Revolution?”  

 

4.  How did Imperialism disrupt world peace by 1914?

 

 

 

 

 


 

 

Passage #2 “Old Imperialism"

 

European imperialism did not begin in the 1800s. In their efforts to find a direct trade route to Asia during the age of Old Imperialism, European nations established colonies in the Americas, India, South Africa, and the East Indies, and gained territory along the coasts of Africa and China. Meanwhile, Europe’s Commercial Revolution created new needs and desires for wealth and raw materials. Mercantilists maintained that colonies could serve as a source of wealth, while personal motives by rulers, statesmen, explorers, and missionaries supported the imperial belief in “Glory, God, and Gold.” By 1800, Great Britain was the leading colonial power with colonies in India, South Africa, and Australia. Spain colonized Central and South America. France held Louisiana and French Guinea, and Holland built an empire in the East Indies.

 

In the first half of the nineteenth century, colonialism became less popular. The Napoleonic Wars, the struggle for nationalism and democracy, and the cost of industrialization exhausted the energies of European nations. Many leaders also thought that the costs to their respective empires outweighed the benefits, especially the cost of supervising the colonies. However, in the mid-nineteenth century, Europe—especially Great Britain and France— began an economic revival. During the Victorian Era, which lasted from 1837 to 1901, Great Britain became an industrial giant, providing more than 25 percent of the world’s output of industrial goods. In France, Napoleon’s investment in industry and large-scale ventures, such as railroad building, helped to promote prosperity. Thus the Industrial Revolution stirred ambitions in many European countries and renewed their confidence to embark on a path of aggressive expansion overseas.

 

Questions for Passage #2

1. Where did European nations establish colonies and trading posts before the 1800s?

 2.  Which areas of the globe did each European nation control? 

 3.  Who were the “mercantilists?”

 

 

 

 


 

 

Passage #3 “New Imperialism"

 

From the late 1800s through the early 1900s, Western Europe pursued a policy of imperialism that became known as New Imperialism. This New Imperialist Age gained its impetus from economic, military, political, humanitarian, and religious reasons, as well as from the development and acceptance of a new theory—Social Darwinism— and advances in technology.

 

 

Economic Reasons

 

By 1870, it became necessary for European industrialized nations to expand their markets globally in order to sell products that they could not sell domestically on the continent. Businessmen and bankers had excess capital to invest, and foreign investments offered the incentive of greater profits, despite the risks. The need for cheap labor and a steady supply of raw materials, such as oil, rubber, and manganese for steel, required that the industrial nations maintain firm control over these unexplored areas. Only by directly controlling these regions, which meant setting up colonies under their direct control, could the industrial economy work.

 

Military and Political Reasons

 

 

Leading European nations also felt that colonies were crucial to military power, national security, and nationalism. Military leaders claimed that a strong navy was necessary in order to become a great power. Thus, naval vessels needed military bases around the world to take on coal and supplies. Islands or harbors were seized to satisfy these needs. Colonies guaranteed the growing European navies safe harbors and coaling stations, which they needed in time of war. National security was an important reason for Great Britain’s decision to occupy Egypt. Protecting the Suez Canal was vital for the British Empire. The Suez Canal, which formally opened in 1869, shortened the sea route from Europe to South Africa and East Asia. To Britain, the canal was a lifeline to India, the jewel of its empire. Many people were also convinced that the possession of colonies was an indication of a nation’s greatness; colonies were status symbols. According to nineteenth-century German historian, Heinrich von Treitschke, all great nations should want to conquer barbarian nations.

 

Humanitarian and Religious Goals

 

Many Westerners believed that Europe should civilize their little brothers beyond the seas. According to this view, non-whites would received the blessings of Western civilization, including medicine, law, and Christianity. Rudyard Kipling (1865–1936) in his famous poem, “The White Man’s Burden” expressed this mission in the 1890s when he prodded Europeans to take up “their moral obligation” to civilize the uncivilized. He encouraged them to “Send forth the best ye breed to serve your captives’ need.” Missionaries supported colonization, believing that European control would help them spread Christianity, the true religion, in Asia and Africa.  

Military and Political Reasons

 

 

Leading European nations also felt that colonies were crucial to military power, national security, and nationalism. Military leaders claimed that a strong navy was necessary in order to become a great power. Thus, naval vessels needed military bases around the world to take on coal and supplies. Islands or harbors were seized to satisfy these needs. Colonies guaranteed the growing European navies safe harbors and coaling stations, which they needed in time of war. National security was an important reason for Great Britain’s decision to occupy Egypt. Protecting the Suez Canal was vital for the British Empire. The Suez Canal, which formally opened in 1869, shortened the sea route from Europe to South Africa and East Asia. To Britain, the canal was a lifeline to India, the jewel of its empire. Many people were also convinced that the possession of colonies was an indication of a nation’s greatness; colonies were status symbols. According to nineteenth-century German historian, Heinrich von Treitschke, all great nations should want to conquer barbarian nations.

 

 

Western Technology

 

Superior technology and improved medical knowledge helped to foster imperialism. Quinine enabled Europeans to survive tropical diseases and venture into the mosquito-infested interiors of Africa and Asia. The combination of the steamboat and the telegraph enabled the Western powers to increase their mobility and to quickly respond to any situations that threatened their dominance. The rapid-fire machine gun also gave them a military advantage and was helpful in convincing Africans and Asians to accept Western control.  

 

 

Questions for Passage #3

1. What were some of the economic reasons for new imperialism?   

2. What were some of the military and political reasons for new imperialism?

 3. What were some of the new technological resources Europeans used to impose imperialism on other parts of the world?  

 

 

 

 




Part 3: The Geography of Imperialism

1.    Use the maps below to answer the questions in your  Age of Imperialism Advanced Organizer Student Assignment on slide #17.

      
 

2.  Be prepared to discuss the answers with the class.






Part 4: Submit your work for a grade


 1.   Once you have completed your Age of Imperialism Advanced Organizer Student Assignment, use the Google Form below to submit your work for a grade.  Be sure to check
       your answers using the Age of Imperialism Advanced Organizer Student Assignment.

 2.    Carefully check your answer and submit your work for a grade. 

      Turn in your Imperialism Adv. Org. Here!

3.    Good Job!





  World History with Mr. Gigliotti | Valley Forge High School | Parma Hts., OH | gigliottip@parmacityschools.org