Unit #7: Imperialism - Imperialism in Africa
  Learning Target: I can IDENTIFY motivations for Imperialism by industrialized nations during the late 1800s and early 1900s.

I know I know it when: I can define the term "imperialism" and locate colonial possessions around the globe.

I am learning this because: Today many nations still have unresolved problems dating back to the Age of Imperialism including some artificial borders and Third World concerns.

Directions: Please follow the directions in the box below to complete the assignment.  Be sure to complete the assignment and carefully check your work before submitting your assignment for a grade. 

Part 1: Important Vocabulary Terms & Geography

1.   European nations began to "administer" their authority over African territories across the continent.  In this activity we will see how different nations controlled African territories.  We will also look at some
      examples of imperialism in Africa such as Congo, Nigeria, and South Africa.

      Take a moment to download the Imperialism in Africa Student AssignmentBe sure to click File > Save As Google Slides before you begin

2.   Use pages 685-688 to define the terms below.  Use your text tool to place the definitions next to the term in your Imperialism in Africa Student Assignment.


      Boer Wars

      Great Trek

3.   Take a few moments to explore the map of Africa below to see the effects of imperialism had on African boarders. 


4.  Be prepared to discuss each term and its definition with the class. 

Part 2: How Did European Nations Control Africa?

1.  Now, skim the two charts below to learn more about how Europeans controlled and managed territories in Africa between 1885-1914.  You can also find these charts on pages 690-691 of your text and on the


2.  Use the charts to complete slides #4 & #5 in your Imperialism in Africa Student AssignmentYou can drag and drop the terms onto the charts or use your text tool.

3.  Be prepared to discuss Eurpean control of Africa with the class using your Imperialism in Africa Student Assignment.

Part 3: Interest in the Congo

1.    Take a few moments to watch the video below about David Livingston and Henry Stanley.  (We may watch this as a class)


2.  Use the right side of the slide to take notes on the video. 

3.  Next, Read the passage below to learn more about the adventures of Dr. Livingston and Mr. Stanley.  Use your highlighter tool to note the important facts in your Imperialism in Africa Student Assignment.



Stanley and Livingstone: 1869-1872

The famous encounter between Livingstone and Stanley is not
significant in the story of the European exploration of Africa (except in so far as it stirs Stanley's own ambitions in the field) but it is one of the most dramatic incidents of the period and is rightly famous - in the version of it published by Stanley in How I Found Livingstone(1872).

Finding Livingstone is a matter of public concern at the time because little has been heard of the famous explorer since the start of his latest expedition into the interior of Africa in 1866. 
On this expedition (it transpires later) Livingstone reaches Lake Bangweulu, Lake Mweru and the southern end of Lake Tanganyika. But he also becomes a virtual prisoner in these regions, relying for subsistence on his avowed enemies, the local slave-traders, who have a vested interest in his not getting back to the coast with details of their atrocities. Hence the impression that he has vanished.

With growing international interest in the mystery of the famous explorer's whereabouts, the proprietor of the New York Herald decides to try and secure a scoop. In 1869 he summons a young journalist, Henry Morton Stanley, and gives him a succinct commission: 'Find Livingstone'. 

By March 1871 Stanley is ready to embark on his journey inland from the east African coast. His target is Lake Tanganyika, and in particular the ivory and slave-trading town of Ujiji - to which supplies for Livingstone have in the past been directed. Stanley reaches Ujiji in November 1871 and his hunch is right. Finding there an ill and emaciated Livingstone, he greets him (in his own account) with the phrase which more than any other detail has made this encounter live in the public memory: 'Dr Livingstone, I presume'.

Livingstone recovers, with Stanley's fresh supplies, and together the two men explore round Lake Tanganyika for four months before Stanley's return to the coast - and to the fame which his book on these events soon brings him.



4.  Next, Read the passage below about the Congo and King Leopold II of Belgium.  Use your highlighter tool to note the important facts in your Imperialism in Africa Student Assignment.



King Leopold II Rules the Congo

Leopold II was the King of Belgium. Many of his relatives sat on the other thrones of Europe, most notably his cousin Victoria was the Queen of England. He was jealous of their wealth and realized that his cousins and their nations were wealthy because they had participated in the lucrative process of imperialism. Leopold wanted a colony too; however, the Belgian people did not want one because they felt that as a small country, a colony would be too difficult to manage: it would cost a great deal of money to start up and many people would be required to leave Belgium to administer the colony. Leopold still wanted one though, so he sent explorers to Africa to see about acquiring a personal colony.


He learned that the Congo region was rich in resources and so he formed a philanthropic organization called the International Association of the Congo. This group was the mask for Leopold’s true aim of getting his own personal colony. In 1884-1885, Leopold’s delegates at the Berlin Conference manipulated the powers of Europe to let the IAC administer the Congo, promising free trade to all the powers. Leopold had already, however, prevented this free trade from being a reality by making deals with the tribes in the Congo that they would only trade with his agents. Thus, Leopold acquired the Congo, a region 32 times the size of Belgium, as his own personal property.


Leopold got very wealthy off of ivory from the elephants in the Congo as ivory was all the rage in Victorian Europe – a middle class home needed a piano (ivory keys!), and ivory was very popular for jewelry, combs, etc.


In America in the 1890s, a man by the name of Dunlop was experimenting with rubber and learned that if you heat it up, you can do a great deal of things with it, including making tires. The rubber boom began. Rubber trees were planted in South America, but they would take 15 years to mature. If someone else had rubber, they could make a lot of money in this 15-year window – they would have a monopoly. It just so happened that Leopold’s Congo was loaded with rubber. So, realizing that he had a 15 year monopoly on rubber before he faced competition from the South American trees (competition drives down prices), he sought to obtain as much rubber as possible and would do anything to get the rubber. To obtain his rubber, he forced the native Congo people into labor. To get them to do the work, he threatened them with death, dismemberment (especially hands), and holding their families hostage. In total, 5-10 million Congo people were killed and many more were impacted by the burning of villages and farms, exposure to the elements, starvation, and mutilation. This was the biggest genocide in history prior to the Holocaust. Leopold was able to keep all of this from the world; furthermore the world didn’t really ask any questions because of the need for rubber.  Eventually aid workers and the Kodak company exposed these atrocities to the world.




5.  Next use the information in the reading to answer on the following questions on slides #13 & #14 in your Imperialism in Africa Student Assignment

     A. Leopold II was the king of which country?

     B. What was the International Association of the Congo?

     C. Why was Leopold interested in the Congo?

     D.  Why was the Dunlop company interested in the Congo?

     E.  How did Leopold profit from controlling the Congo?

     F.  How did Leopold’s rule effect the people of the Congo? 

      G.  How was his treatment of the people of the Congo finally exposed?

6.  Be prepared to discuss the answers with the class.

Part 4: Three Groups Compete for South Africa

1.    Next, take a few moments to carefully read over the information about South Africa on page 689 in your text book.


2.  Use what you read to complete the graphic organizer on slide #15 in your Imperialism in Africa Student Assignment.

3.  Be prepared to discuss the graphic organizer with the class.

4.  Next on slide #16 of your Imperialism in Africa Student Assignment use your graphic organizer to write a summary about the three groups who clashed over South Africa.  Be sure to check your work. 
     You should compose a well written paragraph.

Part 5: Nigeria and Ethiopia

1.    Take a few moments to Read pages 693-695 of your text book about Nigeria and Ethiopia.  Take notes in the boxes on slide #17 of your Age of Imperialism Scramble for Africa Student Assignment.  
Be sure to also read the captions and side notes. 


3.  Be prepared to share and discuss your notes with the class.

Part 6: Submit your work for a grade

 1.   Once you have completed your Imperialism in Africa Student Assignment, use the Google Form below to submit your work for a grade.  Be sure to check
       your answers using the Imperialism in Africa Student Assignment.

 2.    Carefully check your answer and submit your work for a grade. 

      Turn in your Imperialism in Africa  Here!

3.    Good Job!

  World History with Mr. Gigliotti | Valley Forge High School | Parma Hts., OH | gigliottip@parmacityschools.org