. 
 
 
   
                                                                                                     
   
 

Unit #6: Industrialization - The Industrial Revolution Begins!
 
  Learning Target: I can EXPLAIN how Industrialization caused social, political, and economic effects on Western Europe, the United States, and the world.

         
I know I know it when: I can explain the positive and negative effects the Industrial Revolution had on class distinctions, family life, and the global-market economy.

         
I am learning this because: The Industrial Revolution  is one of the major reasons for why our world functions the way it does today. The enormous changes in industry had major ripple effects in the   
          economy, society, geography, health and culture.




Directions:
 
Directions: Please follow the directions in the box below to complete the assignment.  Be sure to complete the assignment and carefully check your work before submitting your assignment for a grade. 



Part 1: Important Vocabulary Words

1.   This year we have studied the many political revolutions in places such as the United States, France, Latin America, and Europe that changed the relationship between the people and their governments. 
      During the 1700's however, another revolution was taking place that would forever change the way goods and services are produced.  The Industrial Revolution replaced the expensive hand made goods of the
      past and ushered in the production of inexpensive machine made good such as textiles.   New inventions, advances in agriculture, and improvements in transportation were also part of the Industrial
      Revolution.  These changes would have both positive and negative effects for people in England.  The Industrial Revolution would soon spread to America and continental Europe.  In this assignment we will
      see how the Industrial Revolution began in England by reading several passages. 

      Take a moment to download the Industrial Revolution Begins Student AssignmentBe sure to click File > Save As Google Slides before you begin


2.    Next take a few moments to define the vocabulary words on slides #2-#4 in your Industrial Revolution Begins Student AssignmentYou can use pages 633-637 in your text book or the index to find the
       correct definitions.  You can also conduct your own Internet search to define the terms. Place the definition of each term in your Industrial Revolution Begins Student Assignment


      (page 1-8 in the pdf book)


     Terms to know:

     Industrial Revolution

     enclosures

     crop rotation

     industrialization

     factors of production

     entrepreneur

2.  Be prepared to discuss each term with the class.


  


Part 2: Passage #1 - The Indistrial Revolution Begins in England

1.   Next, read Passage #1 on slides #5 & #6 in your Industrial Revolution Begins Student Assignment

2.  Use the highlighter tool to identify anything in the text you feel is important to understanding the passage.  Be prepared to discuss what you highlighted.

  Passage #1: The Industrial Revolution Begins in England  
 
In 1700, small farms covered England’s landscape. Wealthy landowners, how-ever, began buying up much of the land that village farmers had once worked.  The large landowners dramatically improved farming methods. These innovations amounted to an agricultural revolution.

The Agricultural Revolution Paves the Way After buying up the land of village farmers, wealthy landowners enclosed their land with fences or hedges. The increase in their landholdings enabled them to cultivate larger fields. Within these larger fields, called enclosures, landowners experimented with more productive seeding and harvesting methods to boost crop yields. The enclosure movement had two important results. First, landowners tried new agricultural methods. Second, large landowners forced small farmers to become tenant farmers or to give up farming and move to the cities. Jethro Tull was one of the first of these scientific farmers. He saw that the usual way of sowing seed by scattering it across the ground was wasteful. Many seeds failed to take root. He solved this problem with an invention called the seed drill in about 1701. It allowed farmers to sow seeds in well-spaced rows at specific depths. A larger share of the seeds took root, boosting crop yields.

Rotating Crops The process of crop rotation proved to be one of the best developments by the scientific farmers. The process improved upon older methods of crop rotation, such as the medieval three-field system.  One year, for example, a farmer might plant a field with wheat, which exhausted soil nutrients. The next year he planted a root crop, such as turnips, to restore nutrients. This might be followed in turn by barley and then clover.

Livestock breeders improved their methods too. In the 1700s, for example, Robert Bakewell increased his mutton (sheep meat) output by allowing only his best sheep to breed. Other farmers followed Bakewell’s lead. Between 1700 and 1786, the average weight for lambs climbed from 18 to 50 pounds. As food supplies increased and living conditions improved, England’s population mushroomed.  An increasing population boosted the demand for food and goods such as cloth. As farmers lost their land to large enclosed farms, many became factory workers.

 

 

 
2.  Now that you have read the passage, what is one question you have about the reading?  Place this question on slide #6 of your Industrial Revolution Begins Student Assignment.

3.  Next, use the passage to complete the graphic organizer on slide #7 of your Industrial Revolution Begins Student Assignment to reinforce what you have read. 

    

 4.  Share what you noted about each important part of the passage with a partner.

 5.  Now, participate in a class discussion about this passage in order to learn more.  Carefully check and edit your work as needed.   




Part 2: Passage #2 Why Did the Industrial Revolution Begin in England?

1.   Next, read Passage #2 on slide #8 in your Industrial Revolution Begins Student Assignment

2.  Use the highlighter tool to identify anything in the text you feel is important to understanding the passage.  Be prepared to discuss what you highlighted.

  Passage #2: Why did the Industrial Revolution Begin in England  
 
 In addition to a large population of workers, the small island country had extensive natural resources.  Industrialization, which is the process of developing machine production of  goods, required such resources. These natural resources included: water power and coal to fuel the new machines, iron ore to construct machines, tools, and buildings, rivers for inland transportation, harbors from which merchant ships set sail.  In addition to its natural resources, Britain had an expanding economy to support industrialization. Business people invested in the manufacture of new inventions.  Britain’s highly developed banking system also contributed to the country’s industrialization. People were encouraged by the availability of bank loans to invest in new machinery and expand their operations. Growing overseas trade, economic prosperity, and a climate of progress led to the increased demand for goods.  Britain’s political stability gave the country a tremendous advantage over its neighbors. Though Britain took part in many wars during the 1700s, none occurred on British soil. Their military successes gave the British a positive attitude.  Parliament also passed laws to help encourage and protect business ventures. Other  countries had some of these advantages. But Britain had all the factors of production, the resources needed to produce goods and services that the Industrial Revolution required. They included land, labor, and capital (or wealth).

 

 

 
2.  Now that you have read the passage, what is one question you have about the reading?  Place this question on slide #8 of your Industrial Revolution Begins Student Assignment.

3.  Next, use the passage to complete the graphic organizer on slide #9 of your Industrial Revolution Begins Student Assignment to reinforce what you have read. 

    

 4.  Share what you noted about each important part of the passage with a partner.

 5.  Now, participate in a class discussion about this passage in order to learn more.  Carefully check and edit your work as needed. 





Part 2: Passage #3 Inventions Spur Industrialization

1.   Next, read Passage #10 on slide #11 in your Industrial Revolution Begins Student Assignment

2.  Use the highlighter tool to identify anything in the text you feel is important to understanding the passage.  Be prepared to discuss what you highlighted.

  Passage #3: Inventions Spur the Industrial Revolution  
 
 In an explosion of creativity, inventions now revolutionized industry. Britain’s textile industry clothed the world in wool, linen, and cotton. This industry was the first to be transformed. Cloth merchants boosted their profits by speeding up the process by which spinners and weavers made cloth. By 1800, several major inventions had modernized the cotton industry. One invention led to another. In 1733, a machinist named John Kay made a shuttle that sped back and forth on wheels. This flying shuttle, a boat-shaped piece. of wood to which yarn was attached, doubled the work a weaver could do in a day.  Because spinners could not keep up with these speedy weavers, a cash prize  attracted contestants to produce a better spinning machine. Around 1764, a textile worker named James Hargreaves invented a spinning wheel he named after his daughter. His spinning jenny allowed one spinner to work eight threads at a time. At first, textile workers operated the flying shuttle and the spinning jenny by hand. Then, Richard Arkwright invented the water frame in 1769. This machine used the waterpower from rapid streams to drive spinning wheels. In 1779, Samuel Crompton combined features of the spinning jenny and the water frame to produce the spinning mule. The spinning mule made thread that was stronger, finer, and more consistent than earlier spinning machines. Run by waterpower, Edmund Cartwright’s power loom sped up weaving after its invention in 1787.

The water frame, the spinning mule, and the power loom were bulky and expensive machines. They took the work of spinning and weaving out of the house. Wealthy textile merchants set up the machines in large buildings called factories. Factories needed waterpower, so the first ones were built near rivers and streams. England’s cotton came from plantations in the American South in the 1790s.  Removing seeds from the raw cotton by hand was hard work. In 1793, an American  inventor named Eli Whitney invented a machine to speed the chore. His cotton gin multiplied the amount of cotton that could be cleaned. American cotton production skyrocketed from 1.5 million pounds in 1790 to 85 million pounds in 1810. James Watt, a mathematical instrument maker at the University of Glasgow in Scotland, thought about the problem for two years. In 1765, Watt figured out a way to make the steam engine work faster and more efficiently while burning less fuel. In 1774, Watt joined with a businessman named Matthew Boulton. Boulton was an entrepreneur a person who organizes, manages, and takes on the risks of a business. He paid Watt a salary and encouraged him to build better engines. In 1804, an English engineer named Richard Trevithick won a bet of several thousand dollars. He did this by hauling ten tons of iron over nearly ten miles of track in a steam-driven locomotive. Other British engineers soon built improved versions of Trevithick’s locomotive.

 

 

 
2.  Now that you have read the passage, what is one question you have about the reading?  Place this question on slide #11 of your Industrial Revolution Begins Student Assignment.

3.  Next, use the passage to complete the graphic organizer on slide #12 of your Industrial Revolution Begins Student Assignment to reinforce what you have read. 

    

 4.  Share what you noted about each important part of the passage with a partner.

 5.  Now, participate in a class discussion about this passage in order to learn more.  Carefully check and edit your work as needed. 





Part 3: Composing Conclusions


 1.   Now that we have read and discussed this section, compose a well written paragraph explaining how and why the Industrial Revolution began in England.  Be sure to use your notes to help you.  You should
       also include at least 5 vocabulary words.

     Industrial Revolution

     enclosures

     crop rotation

     industrialization

     factors of production

     entrepreneur


 2.    Type your essay on slide #13 of your Industrial Revolution Begins Student Assignment

 3.   Be sure to proof read and edit your work before submitting it for a grade.



Part 4: Submit your work for a grade


 1.   Once you have completed your Industrial Revolution Begins Student Assignment, use the Google Form below to submit your work for a grade.  Be sure to check your answers using the 
       Industrial Revolution Begins Student Assignment.

 2.    Carefully check your answer and submit your work for a grade. 

      Turn in your Industrial Rev. Begins Here!

3.    Good Job!





  World History with Mr. Gigliotti | Valley Forge High School | Parma Hts., OH | gigliottip@parmacityschools.org