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Arbitrum's proof mechanism is similar to Optimism above. The difference is mainly reflected in the difference in the data uploaded to the main chain. In the process of processing, when someone thinks that the second-level data is in dispute, they can pay a deposichainlink crypto reddit 2021t and submit a proof. At this time, the contract will arbitrate it. In the Optimistic Rollup scheme, a complete contract will be simulated and executed on the main chain. Calling consumes high costs; in the Arbitrum Rollup scheme, firstly, through multiple rounds of interactions at the second layer, the dispute scope is reduced before being simulated on the main chain, the number of interactions is reduced, and the cost of dispute resolution on the chain is reduced. This is the biggest difference between the two schemes.

Dopex is another one that may benefit from the lower transaction fees and faster transaction confirmation brought by L2.xrp price aud buyDopex is a decentralized options protocol supported by DeFi celebrities such as Tetranode and DeFiGod. Currently, the farm of the agreement has locked in a value of more than 75 million U.S. dollars. Although the option agreement is still in the testnet stage, it is planning to deploy its mainnet on Arbitrum.

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This means that the project can not only provide an investment method for investing in the emerging DeFi derivatives industry, but also increase exposure to the entire Arbitrum ecosystem.The decentralized perpetual contract exchange dYdX is another derivative protocol that releases its functions through L2.dYdX has built its own L2 Rollup based on StarkWare's scalability engine StarkNet, and recently launched a liquid mining plan, which includes a retroactive airdrop of DYDX tokens worth $50,000 to some users. As a result, the attractiveness of the agreement began to increase, and its daily transaction volume increased by more than 10 times within 6 weeks, and it has remained above US$600 million.Perhaps the most direct way for investors to benefit from the success of a particular L2 network is to invest in the native tokens of that L2 network.Although the design space of L2 native tokens is emerging, and we don't know whether all L2 networks will issue their own native tokens, L2 native tokens can provide a similar role to L1 native tokens in terms of providing exposure to specific networks. Although it is unclear whether all L2s will issue tokens, users have the opportunity to place themselves in a position to receive retroactive L2 native token rewards.

Loopring is one of the most prominent application-specific Rollups in the Ethereum expansion ecosystem. It provides a complete set of products based on ZK-Rollup, including an AMM (Automated Market Maker) and order book exchange.Investors can gain exposure to the agreement, which has generated more than $2.7 million in revenue in the past year in the form of LRC tokens. LRC tokens are used to govern the system and serve as the final collateral. Investors can purchase the token directly, or obtain the token reward by providing liquidity to the exchange. In addition, the top 25 traders with the trading volume on the designated trading pair (see the figure below) can also receive LRC token rewards (starting on September 9, 2021, lasting 28 days; settlement cycle is 7 days, A total of 4 cycles).The bridge will provide basic messaging functions, and then developers can build a token bridge on these foundations. There are two ways to transfer tokens on the bridge. For the transfer-out transaction, the native token will be locked in the smart contract or destroyed and expressed as a packaged token. This transaction will generate a transmission message to the bridge-thus sending the message to another chain.

For incoming messages, the user needs to send a message containing the payload. It's simple-you need to send a message with one of four options to tell the bridge what you want to do; unlock or mint tokens, register token bridge contracts, upgrade contracts, or send metadata messages.Another feature of this design is that developers can build applications on the bridge without major changes to a single protocol. This opens the door for connections between networks—such as token or NFT exchanges or connections from a single chain to a specific set of chains—such as price streams or data sources.L1 needs additional help from other networks to increase their DeFi use cases. Because of Solana's high throughput, they emphasize small transactions. Higher speed means that validators can process more transactions in a block. This is in sharp contrast to Ethereum, which has only so many transactions in a block, which pushes up the gas price and takes time to process transactions.With this bridge to Ethereum, Solana, Ethereum, Terra and Binance Smart Chain, Solana should see more users bring their ERC-20 tokens into Solana's ecosystem. Solana is L1, which means that it is the first layer protocol that allows developers to use Solana's features to build applications.

Wormhole's modeling method complements the Cosmos Hub and IBC. Although the Cosmos Hub and Cosmos SDK related chains use IBC, the chain can connect to the Cosmos Hub and other chains by running a light client. Wormhole runs a separate chain designed to connect to chains that don't have built-in IBC capabilities. Currently, L1, which cannot be connected to each other, relies on bridges to achieve cross-chain communication.Wormhole's goal is a chain without light clients or other chains that may be compatible with IBC. It aims to connect many high-value chains that focus on DeFi. More transaction volume and increased liquidity on these networks will help continue their growth trajectory. However, the best way to increase the use of these networks is to adopt more. In order to address more adoption and increase the choice of Web 3, the bridge is the key to providing a user experience beyond Web 2.

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According to reports, David Marcus, the head of Facebook's cryptocurrency business, said in an interview a few days ago that "stable coins" still need more supervision, which should focus on consumer protection and prevention of illegal payments such as money laundering. .Marcus said: "Do we need more supervision? The answer should be yes. First of all, consumers must be protected. Do consumers know what they are buying? In unfavorable circumstances, what guarantees do they need to protect Take out the money? So, when it comes to'stable coins', one has to know what its reserves are made up of?"The so-called "stable currency" is a digital cryptocurrency that is not affected by price fluctuations. They are inherently stable, and this stability usually comes from the support of some alternative value, such as pegging to the dollar or commodities.Launch digital wallet first this year

In June 2019, Facebook released a digital cryptocurrency called "Libra". Libra was originally planned to be officially launched in 2020 and is expected to provide digital transaction and payment services to billions of potential users. But then, many central banks, finance ministers, legislators, and many privacy protection agencies around the world raised questions about Libra and listed multiple issues related to Libra, including money laundering, terrorist financing, and financial stability.In April last year, the Libra Association announced an adjustment to the Libra project. After the adjustment, it will support multiple versions of digital currencies, that is, a "stable currency" backed by a single currency. In contrast, Facebook’s initial plan was to get Libra to get a mix of currency (US dollar, euro, Japanese yen, British pound and Singapore dollar) and government debt.In December, Facebook changed the name of "Libra" to "Diem". At the same time, the "Libra Association" responsible for launching and operating this digital cryptocurrency was also renamed "Diem Association". A person familiar with the matter said in April this year that the Diem Association plans to launch a pilot service for a single stable currency pegged to the US dollar later this year. The initial pilot scale will be small and will focus on transactions between individual consumers.Marcus said at the end of last month that Facebook will go all out to launch the digital wallet "Novi" this year to help the company's 2.9 billion users store digital cryptocurrencies. And diem will be launched after Novi.

Stablecoins may be regulated as securitiesEarlier this week, US Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) Chairman Gary Gensler (Gary Gensler) gave a wide range of opinions on potential digital cryptocurrency regulation during a Senate hearing. Gensler said that "stable currency" may be considered a security. Gensler's remarks come at a time when the US Treasury Department is working with other federal agencies to draft a potential regulatory report on "stable coins" by next month.

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At the Senate hearing, when asked about the "possibility of cryptocurrency investors trying to withdraw funds during the market crash," Gensler said that the SEC cannot provide investors with much help because cryptocurrency trading such as Coinbase The firm is not yet registered with the SEC.And Marcus said that the risk of investing in "stable goods" depends on the commodities that support "stable coins". He said: "In my opinion, only'stable coins' backed by cash and very short-term national debt are high-quality'stable coins."

Marcus also said that concerns about the use of "stable coins" for illegal payments also provide regulators with an opportunity to increase the transparency of regulations governing such transactions, although the current use of "stable coins" for daily payments is still rare.Four major studios, Tianmei, Photon, Northern Lights, and Rubik's Cube, are dispatchedWhether it can be realized technically, put it aside, anyway, the concept of "Metaverse metaverse" is on fire again.First, Zhongqingbao, Tom Cat, etc. revealed that they are optimistic about the development direction of Meta Universe. The capital market took advantage of the trend. The stock prices of many A-share game companies have skyrocketed. Later, Pico, the largest domestic VR equipment manufacturer, issued a letter to all employees, disclosing that the company was beaten by Bytedance. Acquisition, it is reported that the purchase price is as high as 9 billion.CCTV Financial Channel reported that when the technology giants explore the commercial operation of space travel, another internalization path that may change people's living environment will detonate the technology circle this year, and that is the "meta universe".This also made the "meta universe" fire on the table.

It is worth mentioning that a number of well-known manufacturers have recently been reported to have registered Yuan Universe trademarks, such as Tencent’s "King Yuan Universe" and "QQ Yuan Universe", Mihayou’s "Mi Universe", and iQiyi’s "Qing Yu Yuan" "Universe" and the "End-Dollar Universe" of the Perfect World, etc.In addition, according to a competitive inquiry, it was found that game products/brands owned by a number of major Internet companies were preemptively registered as Yuan Universe trademarks.

Wang Congqing, president of HTC China, once told CBN: "Several companies recently said that they are companies that do meta-universe games. Suddenly their stocks have risen by 30%. This is understandable from the perspective of entrepreneurs, but it will increase consumption. The consumers and the market feel a bit confused."Indeed, in the capital market, there are often stories of "you love to answer today, but tomorrow you can't afford it", but with the current level of technology, the imagination space of the meta universe has yet to be explored, and the "bullet" must be allowed to fly for a while.

Over a hundred companies preemptively register Yuan universe trademarkFrom a literal point of view, Caishi Culture registered the trademark "Multiverse" as early as 2015.

However, it has not much connection with the currently discussed "Metaverse Metaverse". The trademark is classified as [41-Education and Entertainment], which is mainly used to organize cultural exhibitions, education and training, etc.From the above icons, it is not difficult to find that 2021 is the explosive period for registration of related trademarks of "Meta Universe", especially in September.According to the incomplete statistics of the competition, in 2021, there were about 140 applications for the Meta Universe trademark (with no repetition of the same name). The number of trademark applications from March to September were 3, 11, 4, 9, 18, and 23. 71.On September 6th, Zhongqingbao stated on the official WeChat that it would create a simulated business game "Master Brew" that can map the inner world of players to the meta universe. On September 8, Tom Cat’s Secretary-General stated on the investor relations platform that the company is firmly optimistic about the development direction of Metaverse and has established a special working group for the direction of Metaverse.

Affected by many factors, Zhongqingbao's stock price soared 44% in two days, and many stocks such as Baotong Technology and Tom Cat also rose by their daily limits.It is worth mentioning that after this, although individual companies were issued letters of attention and interviews by the regulatory authorities, they could not bear the enthusiasm of the capital market towards Meta Universe. "Meta Universe" related business labeling applications doubled, and there were about 53 registration applications from September 8th to September 18th.

Focus on game manufacturers/well-known Internet manufacturers, including Tencent, Mihayou, Shengqu, Perfect World, Migu, iQiyi, etc.Specifically, the meta-universe-related trademarks applied for by Tencent are mainly in the form of its product/brand name + meta-universe, such as "Sky Dollar Universe" (Tianmei Studio), "King Yuan Universe" (Game: King Glory), "QQ Yuan Universe" (social product QQ), etc., there are about 9 "Yuan Universe" related trademarks with the same name without repeating statistics.

Shanghai Anymen Technology "SOUL Yuan Universe" (social product Soul), Shengqu "Legend Yuan Universe" (Legendary Game IP), iQiyi "Qiyu Yuan Universe" (iqiyi Qiyu series VR glasses).In addition, it also includes Mihayou "Mi Universe", Migu "Migu Yuan Universe", Perfect World "End Dollar Universe", Zulong Game "Zulong Yuan Universe" and other trademarks in the form of company name + Yuan Universe. Application for registration.

What needs to be pointed out is that game/Internet manufacturers are keen to register Meta Universe trademarks, and part of the factor is to prevent "trademark cybersquatting."For example, on September 10, a company called Guangzhou Sanhaijing Apparel applied for the registration of 12 meta-universe-related trademarks, and most of the trademarks can be seen as "touching porcelain" at a glance.Including "Blizzard Element Universe", "Ali Element Universe", "WOW Element Universe", "LOL Element Universe", "DNF Element Universe", etc. Among them, "Light Dollar Universe" is it because both "Photon Yuan Universe" and "Sky Dollar Universe" have been registered by Tencent? Doubtful.In order to prevent the trademark from being registered, Miha

Seeing this, you may wonder to yourself, are all applying for the Meta Universe trademark, can all industry companies create Meta Universe?Regarding this question, it is actually difficult to explain clearly, but it is not difficult to answer. As the ultimate form of the Internet, Metaverse is like a basket, and everything can be put in it, such as games, VR, AI, NFT, social and so on.

But not all companies have the qualifications to enter, and it is actually difficult for ordinary companies to compete fairly with major companies.Which "components" are big factories preparing

If ordinary manufacturers can't contribute to the meta-universe, can the big ones? It depends on how you define the "meta universe".Metaverse refers to a digital universe built with many shared infrastructures, standards and protocols with the three major technologies of XR, AI, and Blockchain as the core.

Both Sides of the Table

Perspectives of a 2x entrepreneur turned VC at @UpfrontVC#

Mark Suster

Written by

2x entrepreneur. Sold both companies (last to salesforce.com). Turned VC looking to invest in passionate entrepreneurs 〞 I*m on Twitter at @msuster

Both Sides of the Table

Perspectives of a 2x entrepreneur turned VC at @UpfrontVC, the largest and most active early-stage fund in Southern California. Snapchat: msuster

Mark Suster

Written by

2x entrepreneur. Sold both companies (last to salesforce.com). Turned VC looking to invest in passionate entrepreneurs 〞 I*m on Twitter at @msuster

Both Sides of the Table

Perspectives of a 2x entrepreneur turned VC at @UpfrontVC, the largest and most active early-stage fund in Southern California. Snapchat: msuster